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  • Publikationen 2015

Publikationen 2015

seit Januar 2015

(1) Low Power Fundamental VCO Design in D-band Using 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
U. Ali, G. Fischer, A. Thiede
Proc. German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2015), 359 (2015)
Two low power fundamental mode voltage
controlled oscillators (VCO-I and VCO-II) in the D-band
frequency range are presented in this paper. The oscillator core is
Colpitts type with an additional common base transistor in
cascode configuration to avoid a separate output buffer. The
chips are fabricated in a 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS HBT technology
which has ft and fmax of 300 GHz and 500 GHz respectively. VCOI
has a tuning range from 138.6 to 147.7 GHz while that for
VCO-II is from 142.3 to 150.9 GHz. Both oscillators deliver -1 to -
6 dBm output power to 50 Ω load and consume 47 mW from a -
2.8 V supply. A phase noise of -77 dBc/Hz at 5 MHz offset
frequency was measured.

(2) High Speed Static Frequency Divider Design with 111.6 GHz Self-Oscillation Frequency (SOF) in 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
U. Ali, A. Awny, M. Bober, G. Fischer, A. Thiede
Proc. German Microwave Conference (GeMiC), 241 (2015)

(3) A 40 Gb/s Monolithically Integrated Linear Photonic Receiver in a 0.25 μm BiCMOS SiGe:C Technology
A. Awny, R. Nagulapalli, G. Winzer, M. Kroh, D. Micusik, St. Lischke, D. Knoll, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger, A.C. Ulusoy, L. Zimmermann
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 25(7), 469 (2015)
(SASER)
This letter presents the first 40 Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon photonics linear receiver (Rx) comprising a germanium photodiode (Ge-PD) and a linear transimpedance amplifier
(TIA). Measured optical-electrical (O/E) 3 dB bandwidth (BW) of the Rx is 31 GHz. At 40 Gb/s, the Rx achieves a sensitivity of -3dBm average optical input power with BER of 2,5x10-11.
It operates at  wavelength λ= 1.55. µm, uses 3.3 and 3.7 V power supplies, dissipates 275 mW of power, provides maximum differential output amplitude of 500 mVpp , and occupies an area of 3.2. mm2. The presented receiver achieves the highest bit rate among the published work in monolithically integrated silicon photonics receivers.

(4) A Reactively Matched 1.0–11.5 GHz Hybrid Packaged GaN High Power Amplifier
G.C. Barisich, A.C. Ulusoy, E. Gebara, J. Papapolymerou
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 25(12), 811 (2015)
An ultra-wideband PA using a single GaN die with resistive
and reactive matching is fabricated and measured. The design
includes series and shunt elements at the gate for stability and
gain compensation, and uses two different substrates to obtain optimum ranges for the matching networks. CW measurements
at 31 dBm source power show 27–48% PAE and 35.1–37.4 dBm
output power from 1.0 to 11.5 GHz (168% relative bandwidth).
These results demonstrate multi-watt output power and high PAE
over a decade bandwidth, achieving the best results in this frequency
range for a hybrid implementation

(5) A 2-30 GHz Multi-Octave Planar Microwave Six-Port for Reflection Measurements
A. Bauch, M. Hofmann, R. Weigel, D. Kissinger
Proc. 45th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2015), 52 (2015)

(6) Medical Applications of RF and Microwaves - Applications and Events
J.-C. Chiao, D. Kissinger
IEEE Microwave Magazine 16(6), 14 (2015)

(7) Medical Applications of RF and Microwaves - Therapy and Safety
J.-C. Chiao, D. Kissinger
IEEE Microwave Magazine 16(2), 12 (2015)

(8) Low Chip Area, Low Power Dissipation, Programmable, Current Mode, 10-bits, SAR ADC Implemented in the CMOS 130 nm Technology
R. Dlugosz, G. Fischer
Proc. International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (MIXDES), (2015)

(9) System Analysis of a Phased-Array Radar Applying Adaptive Beam-Control for Future Automotive Safety Applications
M. Dudek, I. Nasr, G. Bozsik, M. Hamouda, D. Kissinger, G. Fischer
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 64(1), 34 (2015)
In this contribution, we present a novel beamcontrol approach for automotive phased-array radar frontends. Since radar sensors are considered to be one of the means to enable future advanced safety functionality, we previously developed a system simulation environment that incorporates all involved domains and calculates all relevant high-level effects accurately. Subsequently, a generic phased-array FMCW radar frontend has been implemented and parameterized according to state-of-the-art SiGe components operating in the 77 GHz band. To demonstrate the advantages of an adaptively controlled beam for future safety applications, it is focused on curved traffic situations, which are calculated in a co-simulation incorporating a 3D-raytracer. A novel method for the control of the antenna characteristic is derived, which takes the specific curve geometry into account, and predictive enhancement features applied to it are elucidated, before their utilization and the resulting increase of system performance is computed. By adaptively coupling the radar sensor to the steering angle, thus directing its beam together
with the ego-vehicle into the curve, its measurement range can be distinctly increased, which is providing more time for the safety system to react. This set of facts is first examined in a static
view, by regarding only some specially selected timesteps, before a thorough analysis of the complete traffic scenario reveals the system’s advantages from a dynamic point-of-view. As a result, the performance improvement of phased-array frontends applying adaptive beam-control compared to those with body-fixed nonsteerable beams is proven. Moreover, some results which are to be expected from such an advanced system, in case its full potential is evolved by implementing a scanning functionality, are provided as an outlook on future developments.

(10) A Scalable Synchronous Reload Technique for Wide Division Range Multi Modulus Dividers
M. El-Shennawy, M.H. Eissa, M. Schulz, N. Joram, F. Ellinger
IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems (ICECS), (2015)
Abstract—This work presents a detailed study for the logic of
multi modulus frequency dividers (MMDs) with multiple
modulus extensions. These MMDs have higher power efficiency
compared to conventional pulse swallow dividers. In integer-N
phase locked loops (PLLs), these MMDs are fully functional over
their entire division range. In fractional-N PLLs however, certain
division ratios cause the PLL to lose lock which makes multistandard
designs more challenging. In this work, a generic
scheme that mitigates this issue is proposed which according to
the best of the authors’ knowledge leads to the simplest trulycontinuous
wide-division-range MMD for fractional-N PLLs.

(11) A 70 GHz Static Dual-Modulus Frequency Divider in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
A. Ergintav, J. Borngräber, B. Heinemann, H. Rücker, F. Herzel, D. Kissinger
Proc. 11th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2015), 66 (2015)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)

(12) A 2.5 Vppd Broadband 32 GHz BiCMOS Linear Driver with Tunable Delay Line for InP Segmented Mach Zehnder Modulators
I. García López, P. Rito, D. Micusik, J. Borngräber, L. Zimmermann, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
Proc. International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2015), (2015)
(SASER)
A 0.13 µm SiGe:C BiCMOS linear optical modulator driver, to be used in hybrid configuration with an InP segmented Mach Zehnder modulator is presented. A tunable broadband delay line for better optical-electrical delay synchronization was implemented. The driver designed for a 16-segments modulator, features 8 dB of gain, 32 GHz bandwidth and 2.5 Vpp differential output dissipating 1.65 W. The total harmonic distortion at 1 GHz is better than 3.7%. The delay line allows ±15% of delay tuning.

(13) Broadband Circuit Techniques for Multi-Terahertz Gain-Bandwidth-Product Low-Power Applications
A. Gharib, R. Weigel, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 63(11), 3701 (2015)
In this paper, two proposed bandwidth (BW) extension techniques are discussed and analytically analyzed. The capabilities of the proposed feedback techniques are demonstrated with
two design examples of different circuitry, supported by simulation and measurement results. The first design example is a broadband low-power active balun, employing one of the presented feedback techniques. It is capable of operating with a gain of 2.2 dB and BW of more than 70 GHz. The amplitude imbalance is less than 2.4 dB, while the phase imbalance is below 7° up to 60 GHz and 14° up to 70 GHz, consuming a low-power of 29.7 mW. The second design
example is a differential three-stage amplifier, incorporating the two techniques, where their combined performance achieves a gain of 54 dB and a 3-dB BW of 25 GHz, resulting in a gain-BW product (GBP) of 12.5 THz, with a power consumption of 180 mW from a 3.3-V supply. The chips are fabricated in a 0.35- m SiGe:C bipolar technology with a fT/fmax of 200/250 GHz.

(14) Ultra-Wideband Compressed Sensing Radar Based on Pseudo Random Binary Sequences
G. Guarin, M. Gardill, R. Weigel, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger
Proc. German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2015), 233 (2015)

(15) Miniature Microwave Biosensors
G. Guarin, M. Hofmann, J. Nehring, R. Weigel, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger
IEEE Microwave Magazine 16(4), 71 (2015)

(16) Self-Calibrating Highly Sensitive Dynamic Capacitance Sensor: Towards Rapid Sensing and Counting of Particles in Laminar Flow Systems
S. Guha, K. Schmalz, Ch. Wenger, F. Herzel
Analyst 140, 3262 (2015)
(Tera-Sens)
In this report we propose a sensor architecture and a corresponding read-out technique on silicon for the
detection of dynamic capacitance change. This approach can be applied to rapid particle counting and
single particle sensing in a fluidic system. The sensing principle is based on capacitance variation of an
interdigitated electrode (IDE) structure embedded in an oscillator circuit. The capacitance scaling of the
IDE results in frequency modulation of the oscillator. A demodulator architecture is employed to provide
a read-out of the frequency modulation caused by the capacitance change. A self-calibrating technique
is employed at the read-out amplifier stage. The capacitance variation of the IDE due to particle flow
causing frequency modulation and the corresponding demodulator read-out has been analytically modelled.
Experimental verification of the established model and the functionality of the sensor chip were
shown using a modulating capacitor independent of fluidic integration. The initial results show that the
sensor is capable of detecting frequency changes of the order of 100 parts per million (PPM), which translates
to a shift of 1.43 MHz at 14.3 GHz operating frequency. It is also shown that a capacitance change
every 3 μs can be accurately detected.

(17) Label Free Sensing of Creatinine using a 6 GHz CMOS Near-Field Dielectric Immunosensor
S. Guha, A. Warsinke, Ch.M. Tientcheu, Ch. Meliani, Ch. Wenger
Analyst 140, 3019 (2015)
(Tera-Sens)
In this work we present a CMOS high frequency direct immunosensor operating at 6 GHz (C-band) for
label free determination of creatinine. The sensor is fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe:C BiCMOS
process. The report also demonstrates the ability to immobilize creatinine molecules on a Si3N4 passivation
layer of the standard BiCMOS/CMOS process, therefore, evading any further need of cumbersome
post processing of the fabricated sensor chip. The sensor is based on capacitive detection of the amount
of non-creatinine bound antibodies binding to an immobilized creatinine layer on the passivated sensor.
The chip bound antibody amount in turn corresponds indirectly to the creatinine concentration used in
the incubation phase. The determination of creatinine in the concentration range of 0.88–880 μM is successfully
demonstrated in this work. A sensitivity of 35 MHz/10 fold increase in creatinine concentration
(during incubation) at the centre frequency of 6 GHz is gained by the immunosensor. The results are
compared with a standard optical measurement technique and the dynamic range and sensitivity is of the
order of the established optical indication technique. The C-band immunosensor chip comprising an area
of 0.3 mm2 reduces the sensing area considerably, therefore, requiring a sample volume as low as 2 μl.
The small analyte sample volume and label free approach also reduce the experimental costs in addition
to the low fabrication costs offered by the batch fabrication technique of CMOS/BiCMOS process.

(18) A 60 GHz Frequency Divider with Quadrature Outputs in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Optical OFDM Systems
F. Herzel, J. Borngräber, A. Ergintav
Proc. 10th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2015), 70 (2015)
(SASER)
A frequency divider providing quadrature outputs up to 30 GHz is presented. Rms phase error and rms clock jitter are discussed in the context of OFDM systems, where the usual phase error correction in the digital baseband processor is included. A measurement technique for the static phase error between the in-phase and quadrature signal is proposed using an integrated single-sideband mixer in conjunction with an integrated 1:256 frequency divider. For a 20 GHz I/Q output signal a static phase error of 0.16 degree is obtained from these measurements. The quadrature divider core draws 35 mA from a 3.3 V supply and occupies 0.2 mm2 chip area, including output buffers and two differential delay lines for I/Q adjustment.

(19) A 60 GHz Frequency Divider with Quadrature Outputs in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Optical OFDM Systems
F. Herzel, J. Borngräber, A. Ergintav
Proc. 10th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2015), 70 (2015)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
A frequency divider providing quadrature outputs up to 30 GHz is presented. Rms phase error and rms clock jitter are discussed in the context of OFDM systems, where the usual phase error correction in the digital baseband processor is included. A measurement technique for the static phase error between the in-phase and quadrature signal is proposed using an integrated single-sideband mixer in conjunction with an integrated 1:256 frequency divider. For a 20 GHz I/Q output signal a static phase error of 0.16 degree is obtained from these measurements. The quadrature divider core draws 35 mA from a 3.3 V supply and occupies 0.2 mm2 chip area, including output buffers and two differential delay lines for I/Q adjustment.

(20) A 17 GHz Programmable Frequency Divider for Space Applications in a 130nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
F. Herzel, J. Borngräber, A. Ergintav, M. Kucharski, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM 2015), 133 (2015)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)

(21) A 330 GHz Hetero-Integrated Source in InP-on-BiCMOS Technology
M. Hossain, N. Weimann, M. Lisker, Ch. Meliani, B. Tillack, V. Krozer, W. Heinrich
Proc. IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2015), (2015)
(SciFab)
This paper presents a 330 GHz hetero-integrated signal source using InP-on-BiCMOS technology. It consists of a fundamental Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) in 0.25 μm BiCMOS technology and a frequency quadrupler in 0.8 μm transferred substrate (TS) InP-HBT technology, which is integrated on top of the BiCMOS MMIC in a wafer-level BCB bonding process. The fundamental VCO operates at 82 GHz and the combined source delivers -12 dBm output power at 328 GHz. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first hetero-integrated signal source in the frequency range beyond 300 GHz reported so far. It demonstrates the potential of the hetero- integration process for THz frequencies.
Index Terms — InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT), monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) oscillator, millimeter wave (mm-wave) source, terahertz, transferred-substrate process (TS).

(22) A 250 GHz Hetero-Integrated VCO with 0.7 mW Output Power in InP-on-BiCMOS Technology
M. Hossain, N. Weimann, B. Janke, M. Lisker, Ch. Meliani, B. Tillack, O. Krüger, V. Krozer, W. Heinrich
Proc. European Microwave Week (EuMW), 391 (2015)
(SciFab)

(23) K-band BiCMOS based Near-field Biomedical Dielectric Sensor for Detection of Fat and Calcium in Blood
F.I. Jamal, S. Guha, M.H. Eissa, S. Vehring, D. Kissinger, Ch. Meliani
Proc. 45th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2015), 821 (2015)
(PlaqueCharM)
This paper presents a K-band BiCMOS dielectric biomedical sensor for discrimination of fat and calcium in blood. Open ended microstrip line, referred as open stub, is used as the sensing element and is embedded in a Colpitts oscillator. The impedance seen by the oscillator core at this node is mainly capacitive and varies with the permittivity of the medium on top of the line. As the resonant frequency of the oscillator scales in accordance with the capacitance of this stub, the permittivity data is translated into into output frequency of the oscillator. The sensor chip was fabricated in standard 0.25 µm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology and has a size of 0.6 mm2 , while, consuming approx. 15 mW power from a 3.3 V power supply.  First measurements were performed by detecting concentration of water in glucose solution. Following this, varied concentrations of fat and calcium were measured using water and blood as the host material in binary mixture. This sensor is proposed as a future building block for minimal invasive investigations and plaque characterization.

(24) A D-Band (110 to 170 GHz) SPDT switch in 32 nm CMOS SOI
W.T. Khan, A.C. Ulusoy, R. Schmid, T. Chi, J.D. Cressler, H. Wang, J. Papapolymerou
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2015), (2015)
This work demonstrates the implementation of a D-band single-pole double-throw switch(SPDT) in 32 nm CMOS SOI technology. A tuned shunt topology is used to achieve the lowest insertion loss. The switch demonstrates state-of-the art performance showing an insertion loss of 2.6 dB at 140 GHz and good matching across the whole D-band. Measurements also show high isolation of greater than 20 dB from 110 to 170 GHz. This is the lowest insertion loss of an SPDT switch that has been designed for the D-band and reported in a 32 nm CMOS SOI process.

(25) A Single-Bit Sampling Demodulator for Biomedical Implants
D. Kim, M. Ko, D. Ng, W.-Y. Choi
Microelectronics Journal 46, 669 (2015)
A phase-shift keying(PSK)demodulator is demonstrated for the target application of low power and high datarate inductive links.The demodulator based on the single-bit sampling demodulation scheme is capable of operating in binary,quadrature,8-,and16-PSK mode.The prototype chip realize din0.18-mm CMOS processc and emodulate up to1.25 M Symbol/sat5-MHz carrier frequency.It occupies 240 x 310 mm2 and consumes 140 mA from 1.2V.

(26) Wireless Integrated Sensor Nodes for Indoor Monitoring and Localization
D. Kissinger, A. Schwarzmeier, F. Grimminger, J. Mena-Carrillo, W. Weber, G. Hofer, G. Fischer, R. Weigel
Proc. IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks (WiSNet 2015), 7 (2015)

(27) Integrated Millimeter-Wave Transceiver Concepts and Technologies for Wireless Multi-Gbps Communication
D. Kissinger, T. Girg, C. Beck, I. Nasr, H.P. Forstner, M. Wojnowski, K. Pressel, R. Weigel
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2015), (2015)

(28) Integrated Test Concepts for In-Situ Millimeter-Wave Device Characterization
D. Kissinger, J. Nehring, K. Borutta, I. Nasr, B. Laemmle, R. Weigel
Proc. 13th IEEE International New Circuits and Systems Conference (NEWCAS 2015), 10B5 (2015)

(29) Medical Applications of RF and Microwaves - Sensing, Monitoring and Diagnostics
D. Kissinger, J.-C. Chiao
IEEE Microwave Magazine 16(4), 34 (2015)

(30) High-Performance BiCMOS Si Photonics Platform
D. Knoll, St. Lischke, A. Awny, M. Kroh, E. Krune, Ch. Mai, A. Peczek, D. Petousi, S. Simon, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, R. Barth, L. Zimmermann
Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM 2015), 88 (2015)
(RF2THzSiSoC)

(31) High-Performance BiCMOS Si Photonics Platform
D. Knoll, St. Lischke, A. Awny, M. Kroh, E. Krune, Ch. Mai, A. Peczek, D. Petousi, S. Simon, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, R. Barth, L. Zimmermann
Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM 2015), 88 (2015)
(SASER)

(32) Fabrication of High Bit Rate, Monolithically Integrated Receivers in Photonic BiCMOS Technology
D. Knoll, St. Lischke, L. Zimmermann, A. Awny, M. Kroh, A. Peczek, K. Voigt, K. Petermann
Proc. IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), ThF5 (2015)
(SASER)

(33) High-Performance BiCMOS Si Photonics Platform
D. Knoll, St. Lischke, A. Awny, M. Kroh, E. Krune, Ch. Mai, A. Peczek, D. Petousi, S. Simon, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, R. Barth, L. Zimmermann
Proc. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM 2015), 88 (2015)
(MOSAIC)

(34) Simple and Efficient Localization Method for IR-UWB Systems based on Two-Way Ranging
D. Kreiser, D. Martynenko, O. Klymenko, G. Fischer
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM 2015), (2015)
(UWB)

(35) Simple and Efficient two-Way Ranging Method for IEEE 802.15.4a
D. Kreiser
Proc. 1st URSI Atlantic Radio Science Conference (URSI AT-RASC), ext. abstr. (2015)
(UWB)

(36) Time-Domain Simulation of Quantization Noise Mixing and Charge Pump Device Noise in Fractional-N PLLs
M. Kucharski, F. Herzel, D. Kissinger
Proc. 13th IEEE International New Circuits and Systems (NEWCAS 2015), 7A5 (2015)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
In this paper we  model phase noise and spurious tones (spurs) for a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) with static phase offset. The phase detector (PD) input-output characteristic around the bias point is approximated by a parabolic function. Using  a MATLAB code, phase noise spectrum and fractional spurs are calculated as a function of slope and curvature of the PD characteristic. The dependence of the PLL output spectrum on PD nonlinearity and rms phase error at the PD input is discussed
and compared with theoretical results. A close agreement with theoretical predictions is observed.

(37) Charge Pump Design in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Low-Noise Fractional-N PLLs
M. Kucharski, F. Herzel
Advances in Radio Science 13, 133 (2015)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
This paper presents a numerical comparison of charge pumps (CP) designed for a high linearity and a low noise to be used in a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL). We consider a PLL architecture, where two parallel CPs with DC offset are used. The CP for VCO fine tuning is biased at the output to keep the VCO gain constant. For this specific architecture, only one transistor per CP is relevant for phase detector linearity. This can be an nMOSFET, a pMOSFET or a SiGe HBT, depending on the design. The HBT-based CP shows the highest linearity, whereas all charge pumps show similar device noise. An internal supply regulator with low
intrinsic device noise is included in the design optimization.

(38) Evaluation Platform for Verification of an IR-UWB Ranging System
D. Martynenko, D. Kreiser, O. Klymenko, G. Fischer
Proc. 12th Workshop in Positioning, Navigation and Communication (WPNC'15), (2015)
(UWB)

(39) A Permittivity Sensitive Phase-Locked Loop Based on a Silicon-Integrated Capacitive Sensor for Microwave Biosensing Applications
J. Nehring, M. Bartels, R. Weigel, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks and Sensing Systems (BioWireless 2015), 51 (2015)

(40) Low-Power, High-Gain Transimpedance Amplifier for Processing Ultra Low AC Current MEMS Output
M. Nenadovic, N. Fiebig, G. Fischer
Proc. 1st URSI Atlantic Radio Science Conference (AT-RASC), 1599 (2015)
(Nanett)

(41) Terahertz Gas-Phase Spectroscopy: Chemometrics for Security and Medical Applications
P. Neumaier, K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, R. Wylde, H.-W. Hübers
Analyst 140, 213 (2015)
(Telediagnostics)
We describe a spectrometer consisting of a vector network analyser, a gas absorption cell, and a quasi-optical bench that acquires terahertz spectra of gaseous substances and mixtures. We tested volatile organic compounds that are medical biomarkers or chemicals which can be found on the US Environment Protection Agency list of harmful substances. Absorption spectra at gas pressures between 10 Pa and 5000 Pa were recorded. A subsequent multivariate data analysis demonstrated excellent qualitative and quantitative identification of pure substances and complex mixtures. The applied multivariate algorithms are Principal Components Analysis, Partial Least Square regression and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy.

(42) Terahertz Gas-Sensors: Gas-Phase Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Medical and Security Applications
P. Neumaier, K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger, H.-W. Hübers
Proc. IEEE Sensors 2015, 1909 (2015)
(Telediagnostics)

(43) Polarity Reception for IR-UWB in Wireless Fading Channel 
S. Olonbayar, D. Kreiser, R. Kraemer, G. Fischer, D. Martynenko, O. Klymenko
Proc. European Wireless (EW2015), 283 (2015)
(KUSZ)
A digital baseband was designed and implemented according to the standard IEEE802.15.4a both in FPGA and as well as ASIC. The baseband supports data rates 850 Kb/s, 6.81 Mb/s and 27.24 Mb/s running at the clock speed of 31.2 MHz. The transmitter and receiver were tested by introducing various distortions to the signal being received. The baseband was shown to be fully functional being able to receive even under heavy distortion. Both the synchronization and data detection performance are robust. The baseband tested with a FPGA was further made as an ASIC in the 250 nm BiCMOS technology from IHP, Germany.

(44) A 5.4W X-Band Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier in an Encapsulated Organic Package
S. Pavlidis, A.C. Ulusoy, J. Papapolymerou
Proc. European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2015), 789 (2015)
Gallium nitride (GaN) amplifiers are inherently well suited for high power applications, but their increased power densities call for high thermal conductivity (k) substrates, such as copper (Cu) or aluminum nitride (AlN), to provide adequate thermal management. Thus, low-cost/low-k substrates, such as organics, have been traditionally overlooked for GaN-based amplifiers. In this paper, an encapsulated package is investigated to circumvent the thermal limitations of liquid crystal polymer (LCP), one such organic, while leveraging its multilayer and microwave advantages. An X-band GaN PA in such a package has been designed and fabricated, showing a PAE of 38% and PSAT of 5.4W under CW operation, or 49% PAE and 7W PSAT at 50% duty cycle

(45) A 40 Gb/s 4 Vpp IQ Modulator Driver in 0.13 μm SiGe:C BiCMOS Technology for 25 Ω Mach Zehnder Modulators
P. Rito, I. Garcia Lopez, D. Micusik, J. Borngräber, L. Zimmermann, A.C. Ulusoy and D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2015), (2015)
(SASER)
In this work, a modulator driver in 0.13 μm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology for 25 Ω travelling wave electrode (TWE) Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) is presented. The design integrates two channels for differential driving of IQ signals. The driver delivers a differential output signal of 4 Vpp, exhibits a differential gain of 12 dB and has an output return loss of more than 9 dB. It works from a 4.7 V supply and dissipates 1.1 W/channel. Data rate of 40 Gb/s is demonstrated through measurements. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time a design of a driver suitable for 25 Ω TWE MZMs is presented.

(46) Tunable 500 GHz Transmitter-Array in SiGe Technology for Gas Spectroscopy
K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, W. Debski, P. Neumaier, R. Wang, H.-W. Hübers
Electronics Letters 51(3), 257 (2015)
(Telediagnostics)
A 500 GHz system for gas spectroscopy is presented, which includes an integrated SiGe 4x1 transmitter (TX)-array, a Golay cell as detector, and a 1.9 m long gas absorption cell. The local oscillator (LO) of the TX-array is controlled by an external phase-locked loop (PLL), whose reference frequency is swept. The four TX-branches involve frequency quadruplers (x4). The TX-branches are fed by a 120 GHz power division network, which is connected to the LO. The estimated radiated output power of the TX array is  7 dBm at 500 GHz.  The absorption spectrum of gaseous methanol is shown for 494 – 500 GHz.

(47) 500 GHz Sensor System in SiGe for Gas Spectroscopy
K. Schmalz, P. Neumaier, R. Wang, J. Borngräber, W. Debski, M. Kaynak, D. Kissinger, H.-W. Hübers
Proc. 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2015), (2015)
(Telediagnostics)
A 500 GHz sensor system for gas spectroscopy is presented, which includes a SiGe transmitter (TX) array and a SiGe receiver (RX). The integrated local oscillators of the TX-array and RX chips are controlled by two external phase-locked loops (PLL). The reference frequency of the TX-array PLL is modulated for 2f absorption spectroscopy (second harmonic detection). The performance of the sensor system is demonstrated by the 2f absorption spectra of methanol and acetonitrile.

(48) Tunable 500 GHz Sensor System in SiGe Technology for Gas Spectroscopy
K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, W. Debski, P. Neumaier, R. Wang, D. Kissinger, H.-W. Hübers
Electronics Letters 51, 1345 (2015)
(Telediagnostics)
A 500 GHz system for gas spectroscopy is presented, which includes a SiGe 4x1 transmitter (TX)-array, a SiGe subharmonic receiver (RX), and a 1.9 m long gas absorption cell. The 120 GHz local oscillators (LOs) of the TX-array and RX are controlled by two external phase-locked loops (PLLs), whose reference frequencies are swept. The TX involves a frequency quadrupler. The RX uses a frequency doubler for the 120 GHz LO frequency, which is connected to a subharmonic transconductance mixer. The absorption spectrum of a gaseous mixture of methanol and acetonitrile is measured from 495 – 497 GHz.

(49) 245 GHz SiGe Sensor System for Gas Spectroscopy
K. Schmalz, R. Wang, W. Debski, H. Gulan, J. Borngräber, P. Neumaier, H.-W. Hübers
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies 7(3/4), 271–278 (2015)
(Telediagnostics)
A 245 GHz sensor system for gas spectroscopy is presented, which includes a SiGe receiver (RX), a SiGe transmitter (TX), and a 0.6 m long gas absorption cell between the TX and RX. The integrated local oscillators of the RX and the TX are controlled by two external phase locked loops (PLLs), whose reference frequencies are swept with constant frequency offset for a low IF of the RX. The RX consists of a differential low noise amplifier (LNA), an integrated 122 GHz local oscillator (LO) with 1/64 divider, a 908 differential hybrid, and active subharmonic mixer. The TX consists of an integrated 122 GHz LO with 1/64 divider, and a frequency doubler. The RX and TX are fabricated in 0.13 mm SiGe BiCMOS with ft/fmax of 300/500 GHz.
Using external dielectric lenses for the TX and RX, the absorption spectrum of gaseous methanol has been measured. The reference frequency of the TX-PLL is modulated for frequency-modulation spectroscopy. The performance of the sensor system is demonstrated by measuring the 2f absorption spectrum (second harmonic detection) of gaseous methanol.

(50) A Comparison of the Degradation in RF Performance Due to Device Interconnects in Advanced SiGe HBT and CMOS Technologies
R.L. Schmid, A.C. Ulusoy, S. Zeinolabedinzadeh, J.D. Cressler
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 62(6) 1803 (2015)
This paper investigates the impact of the interconnect between the bottom and the top metal layers on the transistor RF performance of CMOS and silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technologies. State-of-the-art 32-nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS and 120-nm SiGe HBT technologies are analyzed in detail. Measured results indicate a significant reduction in the unity-gain frequency (fT) from the bottom to the top metal layer for advanced CMOS technology nodes, but only a slight reduction for SiGe HBTs. The 32-nm SOI CMOS and SiGe HBT technologies have a reduction in the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) from the bottom to the top metal layer of ~12% and 5%, respectively. By analyzing technology scaling trends, it is clear that SiGe HBTs can now achieve a similar peak fT at the top metal layer in comparison with advanced CMOS technology nodes, and a significantly higher fmax. Furthermore, in CMOS technologies, the top metal layer fmax appears to have reached a peak around the 45-65-nm technology nodes, a result which has significant implications.

(51) A Class-E Tuned W-Band SiGe Power Amplifier With 40.4% Power-Added Efficiency at 93 GHz
P. Song, M.A. Oakley, A.C. Ulusoy, M. Kaynak, B. Tillack, G.A. Sadowy, J.D. Cressler
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 25(10), 663 (2015)
A W-band power amplifier with Class-E tuning in a 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS technology is presented. Voltage swing beyond is enabled by the cascode topology, low upper base
resistance, and minimally overlapping current-voltage waveforms. At 93 GHz with 4.0 V bias, the peak power-added efficiency and saturated output power are measured to be 40.4% and 17.7 dBm, respectively. With the bias increased to 5.2 V, the peak poweradded efficiency and saturated output power at 93 GHz are measured to be 37.6% and 19.3 dBm, respectively.

(52) Modeling and Measurement of a Tissue-Equivalent Liquid for Noninvasive Dehydration Sensing in the 2.45 GHz ISM-Band
F. Trenz, V. Kalpen, R. Weigel, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications (IMWS-Bio 2015), 62 (2015)

(53) A Broadband 3-29 GHz Reflectometer with a Frequency Compensated Multilayer Sixport Structure
F. Trenz, M. Hofmann, R. Weigel, D. Kissinger
Proc. 45th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2015), 323 (2015)

(54) Permittivity Sensor Based on 60 GHz Patch Antenna
S. Vehring, S. Guha, F.I. Jamal, M. Kucharski, Ch. Meliani
Proc. German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2015), 311 (2015)
(PlaqueCharM)

(55) SciFab – a Wafer Level Heterointegrated InP DHBT/SiGe BiCMOS Process for mm-Wave Applications
N. Weimann, S. Hochheim, D. Rentner, D. Stoppel, M. Hossain, T. Al-Sawaf, V. Krozer, B. Janke, M. Lisker, A. Krüger, Ch. Meliani, B. Tillack
Proc. Compound Semiconductor Week (CSW 2015), (2015)
(SciFab)

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