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  • Publikationen 2019

Publikationen 2019

seit Januar 2019

(1) Design of Planar Waveguide Transition and Antenna Array utilizing Low-Loss Substrate for 79 GHz Radar Applications
W. Ahmad, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2019), (2019)
This paper demonstrates planar designs of a microstrip-to-waveguide transition as well as a 4x1 patch antenna array at 79 GHz to investigate utilizing a new lowloss substrate material in radar applications. The planar transition enables direct surface-mounting of the standard waveguide flange without additional mechanical parts. It comprises of microstrip-to-substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) transition and SIW-WR12 transition. The patch antenna array is employed in a two-channel radar sensor where its radiation pattern is measured and verified.

(2) High Performance Asymmetric Coupled Line Balun at Sub-THz Frequency
A. Ali, J. Yun, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, F. Giannini, P. Colantonio
Applied Sciences 9(9), 1907 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/app9091907
In this paper, we report a high-performance balun with characteristics suitable for future
broadband sub-THz differential circuits. The idea of the balun is based on three asymmetric coupled lines, which enhance the odd mode capacitances to equalize the even/odd mode phase velocities. The inner line of the three asymmetric coupled lines is configured to form the open stub (λ/2), while the outer lines form short stubs (λ/4). To further reduce the phase imbalance, the short stubs in one of the arms of the balun are connected with vias and a lower metal layer. The balun is developed using the standard 130-nm SiGe BiCMOSback-end process and EM simulated with ADS momentum and Sonnet. The -10-dB reflection coefficient (S11) bandwidth of the balun is 136 GHz (88–224 GHz). It shows insertion loss (including RF pads) <1.5 dB, phase imbalance <7 degrees, and amplitude imbalance <1 dB at 94–177 GHz. Furthermore, a scaled-down version of the balun operates on the WR-6, WR-5, and WR-4 frequency bands without significant degradation in its performance. Such characteristics of the balun make it an ideal candidate for various broadband differential circuits.
 

(3) A 13.5dBm Fully Integrated 200-to-255GHz Power Amplifier with a 4-Way Power Combiner in SiGe:C BiCMOS
M.H. Eissa, D. Kissinger
Proc. International Solid States Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2019), 82 (2019)
(WORTECS)
In this paper, we present a fully integrated power amplifier (PA) that combines the power of 4 differential PA units using a 4-way zero-degree combiner and a 4-way active splitter to feed the 4 PA units at 240GHz frequency band. It achieves measured saturated output power (Psat) and output 1-dB compression point (OP1dB) of 13.5 and 10.5dBm respectively. This is equivalent to a drain efficiency (ηd) and power added efficiency (PAE) at OP1dB of 3% and 1.47% respectively. A small signal gain (S21) of 15.5dB is measured across a 3-dB bandwidth of 55 GHz from 200 GHz to 255 GHz. These results demonstrates at least 2 times more saturated output power than the reported silicon-based power combined PAs above 200GHz with 4 times better drain efficiency and 7 times better PAE at OP1dB.

(4) A Study of Phase Noise and Frequency Error of a Fractional-N PLL in the Course of FMCW Chirp Generation
A. Ergintav, F. Herzel, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I 66(5), 1670 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2018.2880881, (Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
This paper presents theoretical and experimental results on the phase noise spectrum and the rms frequency error of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) under frequencymodulated continuous-wave (FMCW) chirp generation. The phase noise spectrum under modulation is analytically calculated for a second-order charge pump (CP) PLL with a feedback divider ratio linearly changing over time. This is followed by an analysis of the steady-state rms frequency error of the output frequency after PLL settling is achieved during chirp generation. A fractional-N PLL with integrated frequency ramp generator is presented. Phase noise and jitter measurements on the PLL under modulation are performed at the output of the programmable feedback divider. The resulting low-frequency rms jitter is reduced by about 9 dB with doubling the charge pump current, and reduced by about 6 dB with halving the ramp slope. The rms frequency error under FMCW is measured at the modulated voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) output. The dependence of the frequency error on the loop filter capacitance for various ramp slopes is given. A frequency error of 112 kHz is achieved with a ramp slope of 1.28GHz/80μs at a carrier frequency of 62GHz. The noise measurements are in good agreement with the developed phase-noise model. A programmable loop filter capacitance is suggested to accommodate the static phase offset and the resulting frequency error to the ramp slope.

(5) An Integrated VCO With Frequency Tripler in SiGe BiCMOS with a 1-dB Bandwidth from 22GHz to 32GHz for Multiband 5G Wireless Networks
F. Herzel, G. Panic, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger
Proc. 12th German Microwave Conference (GeMIC 2019), 99 (2019)
(fast spot)

(6) Low Insertion Loss D-Band SPDT Switches Using Reverse and Forward Saturated SiGe HBTs
A. Karakuzulu, A. Malignaggi, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2019), (2019)
(Taranto)
This paper presents two D-band SPDTs utilizing forward and reverse saturated SiGe HBTs. The SPDT switch designs are based on quarter-wave double shunt topology and state-of-the-art performance are achieved at D-band frequencies from 110 to 170 GHz. Measurement results of the reverse saturated SPDT switches show minimum insertion
loss of 2 dB (including pads losses) at 140 GHz and insertion loss better than 2.3 dB from 120 GHz to 170 GHz. The power consumption of both SPDTs is 3.04mW at 0.9V supply.

(7) A Low-Power D-Type Flipflop with Active Inductor and Forward Body Biasing Techniques in 40-nm CMOS
Y. Liang, C. Chye Boon, D. Kissinger, Y. Wang
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
A novel D-type flip-flop (DFF) and active inductive peaking powered by 0.7 V supply is proposed and implemented for low power communication. Forward bias (FB) technique is introduced for both the DFF and the active inductor in the clock buffer to effectively reduce the transistor threshold voltage, thus increasing the output swing along the data path. To mitigate the potential of junction breakdown, deep N-well NMOS is utilized for forward biasing. As the clock buffer is loaded by the active inductor, the output common-mode voltage can be increased by FB as well. The subsequent DFF can be hereby biased at class AB for fast data sampling. A pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) generator is implemented using the proposed DFF and the active inductor to verify the low power operation. Measured results show that the PRBS-4 can generates 8 Gb/s random data stream with 1.75 pJ/bit power efficiency under a 0.7 V power supply, achieving over 2X power efficiency improvement compared to the design operating at 1.2 V.

(8) Processing and Integration of Graphene in a 200 mm Wafer Si Technology Environment
M. Lisker, M. Lukosius, M. Fraschke, J. Kitzmann, J. Dabrowski, O. Fursenko, P. Kulse, K. Schulz, A. Krüger, J. Drews, S. Schulze, D. Wolansky, A.M. Schubert, J. Katzer, D. Stolarek, I. Costina, A. Wolff, G. Dziallas, F. Coccetti, A. Mai
Microelectronic Engineering 205, 44 (2019)
(Graphen)
We present insights into processes of cleaning, patterning, encapsulation, and contacting graphene in a 200mm wafer pilot line routinely used for the fabrication of integrated circuits in Si technologies. We demonstrate key process steps and discuss challenges and roadblocks which need to be overcome to enable integration of this material with Si technologies.

(9) Data Link Layer Processor for 100 Gbps Terahertz Wireless Communications in 28 nm CMOS Technology
L. Lopacinski, M. Marinkovic, G. Panic, M.H. Eissa, A. Hasani, K. KrishneGowda, R. Kraemer
IEEE Access 7, 44489 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2907156, (fast spot)
In this paper, we show our 165 Gbps data link layer processor for wireless communication in the terahertz band. The design utilizes interleaved Reed-Solomon codes with dedicated link adaptation, fragmentation, aggregation, and hybrid-automatic-repeat-request. The main advantage is the low chip area required to fabricate the processor, which is at least 2 times lower than the area of low-density parity-check decoders. Surprisingly, our solution loses only ~1 dB gain when compared to high-speed low-density parity-check decoders. Moreover, with only 2.38 pJ/bit of energy consumption at 0.8V, one of the best results in the class of comparable implementations has been achieved. Alongside, we show our vision of a complete 100 Gbps wireless transceiver, including radio frequency frontend and baseband processing. For the baseband realization, we propose parallel sequence spread spectrum and channel combining at the baseband level. Challenges to high-speed wireless transmission at the terahertz band are addressed as well. To the authors’ best knowledge, it is one of the first data link layer implementations that deal with a data rate of ≥100 Gbps.

(10) Modular Data Link Layer Processing for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 22nd International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/DDECS.2019.8724657, (DFG-SPP1655)

(11) Modular Data Link Layer Processing for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 22nd International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/DDECS.2019.8724657, (fast spot)

(12) Data Link Layer Processor for 100 Gbps Terahertz Wireless Communications in 28 nm CMOS Technology
L. Lopacinski, M. Marinkovic, G. Panic, M.H. Eissa, A. Hasani, K. KrishneGowda, R. Kraemer
IEEE Access 7, 44489 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2907156, (DFG-SPP1655)
In this paper, we show our 165 Gbps data link layer processor for wireless communication in the terahertz band. The design utilizes interleaved Reed-Solomon codes with dedicated link adaptation, fragmentation, aggregation, and hybrid-automatic-repeat-request. The main advantage is the low chip area required to fabricate the processor, which is at least 2 times lower than the area of low-density parity-check decoders. Surprisingly, our solution loses only ~1 dB gain when compared to high-speed low-density parity-check decoders. Moreover, with only 2.38 pJ/bit of energy consumption at 0.8V, one of the best results in the class of comparable implementations has been achieved. Alongside, we show our vision of a complete 100 Gbps wireless transceiver, including radio frequency frontend and baseband processing. For the baseband realization, we propose parallel sequence spread spectrum and channel combining at the baseband level. Challenges to high-speed wireless transmission at the terahertz band are addressed as well. To the authors’ best knowledge, it is one of the first data link layer implementations that deal with a data rate of ≥100 Gbps.

(13) Towards CMOS Integrated Microfluidics using Dielectrophoretic Immobilization
H. Matbaechi Ettehad, R.K. Yadav, S. Guha, Ch. Wenger
Biosensors (MDPI) 9(2), 77 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/bios9020077, (BioBic)
Dielectrophoresis is a nondestructive and noninvasive method which is favorable for point-of-care medical diagnostic tests. In this work the feasibility of a CMOS integrated microfluidic device for detecting biocells using dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique was investigated by finite element simulation. The proposed detection system is used to immobilize particles on electrodes while flowing through the microfluidic channel based on the dielectrophoretic (DEP) force and sensing them using the same electrode structures. CMOS compatible interdigitated capacitor (IDC) arrays have been placed into the silicon microfluidic channel. In order to produce the dielectrophoretic force, a fixed frequency voltage small-signal within the range of 1 to maximum 5 V (peak-to-peak) is applied to the IDC. Generation of particles within the microfluidic channel were simulated with COMSOL Multiphysics. COMSOL simulations allowed IDC arrays to be optimized with respect to different cell sizes. Accordingly, in order to have a microsystem platform to be used for different size cells, effective internal and external properties such as geometrical parameters of IDC, voltage, frequency and fluid flow velocity were characterized.

(14) 64-GBd DP-Bipolar-8ASK Transmission over 120 km SSMF Employing a Monolithically Integrated Driver and MZM in 0.25-µm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
G.R. Mehrpoor, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, B. Wohlfeil, R. Elschner, D. Rafique, R. Emmerich, A. Dochhan, I. Lopez, P. Rito, D. Petousi, D. Kissinger, L. Zimmermann, C. Schubert, B. Schmauss, M. Eiselt, J.-P. Elbers
Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC 2019), Tu2A.5 (2019)
(SPEED)
We demonstrate 64-GBd signal generation up to bipolar-8-ASK utilizing a single MZM,monolithically integrated with segmented drivers in SiGe. Using polarization multiplexing, 300-Gb/s net data rate transmission over 120 km SSMF is shown.

(15) Analysis of Human Breath by Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Spectroscopy
N. Rothbart, O. Holz, R. Koczulla, K. Schmalz, H.-W. Hübers
Biosensors (MDPI) 19(12), 2719 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/s19122719, (DFG-AGS)
Breath gas analysis is a promising tool for medical research and diagnosis. A particularly powerful technological approach is millimeter-wave/terahertz (mmW/THz) spectroscopy, because it is a very sensitive and highly selective technique. In addition, it offers the potential for compact and affordable sensing systems for wide use. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of a mmW/THz spectrometer for breath analysis. Samples from three volunteers and a sample from ambient air were analyzed with respect to 31 different molecular species. High-resolution 23 absorption spectra were measured by scanning two absorption lines of each species. Out of the 31, a total of 21 species was detected. The results demonstrate the potential of mmW/THz spectroscopy for breath analysis.

(16) Transmitters and Receivers in SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Sensitive Gas Spectroscopy at 222 - 270 GHz
K. Schmalz, N. Rothbart, M.H. Eissa, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger, H.-W. Hübers
AIP Advances 9, 015213 (2019)
(DFG-AGS)

(17) RF-MEMS Based V-Band Impedance Tuner Driven by Integrated High-Voltage LDMOS Switch Matrix and Charge Pump
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
(LDMOS)
To demonstrate a fully integrated RF-MEMS based system including HV generation and switching circuitry, a V-Band (40 – 75 GHz) single-stub impedance tuner comprising four RF-MEMS switches, a 40V charge pump, and LDMOS based HV switches is developed in a 0.25μm SiGe-BiCMOS technology. The chip size of the designed impedance tuning circuit enables the integration into an on-wafer RF-probe used for noise parameter and load-pull measurements. With the embedded high-voltage generation and switching circuitry the wiring effort, which is necessary to control the integrated RF-MEMS based impedance tuning chip, can be drastically reduced. The operation of the on-chip high-voltage generation and switching circuitry is demonstrated by the measured S-parameters for various combinations of activated RF-MEMS switches. The four integrated RF-MEMS switches enable 16 impedance states in the frequency range between 40 GHz and 60 GHz.

(18) RF-MEMS Based V-Band Impedance Tuner Driven by Integrated High-Voltage LDMOS Switch Matrix and Charge Pump
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
(MEMS Integration)
To demonstrate a fully integrated RF-MEMS based system including HV generation and switching circuitry, a V-Band (40 – 75 GHz) single-stub impedance tuner comprising four RF-MEMS switches, a 40V charge pump, and LDMOS based HV switches is developed in a 0.25μm SiGe-BiCMOS technology. The chip size of the designed impedance tuning circuit enables the integration into an on-wafer RF-probe used for noise parameter and load-pull measurements. With the embedded high-voltage generation and switching circuitry the wiring effort, which is necessary to control the integrated RF-MEMS based impedance tuning chip, can be drastically reduced. The operation of the on-chip high-voltage generation and switching circuitry is demonstrated by the measured S-parameters for various combinations of activated RF-MEMS switches. The four integrated RF-MEMS switches enable 16 impedance states in the frequency range between 40 GHz and 60 GHz.

(19) A 60 GHz Ring Sensor with Differential Feed-Lines for Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biomedical Applications
R.K. Yadav, J. Wessel, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS 2019), (2019)
(Nexgen)

(20) Development of a Portable Dielectric Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Viscosity Variations and Its In-Vitro Evaluations using Saliva Samples of COPD Patients and Healthy Control
P.S. Zarrin, F.I. Jamal, N. Roeckendorf, Ch. Wenger
Healthcare (MDPI) 7(1), 11 (2019)
(EXASENS)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a life-threatening lung disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Although majority of patients with objective COPD go undiagnosed until late stages of their disease, recent studies suggest that the regular screening of sputum viscosity could provide important information on the disease detection. Since the viscosity of sputum is mainly defined by its mucin-protein and water contents, dielectric biosensors can be used for detection of viscosity variations by screening changes in sputum's contents. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop a portable dielectric biosensor for rapid detection of viscosity changes and to evaluate its clinical performance in characterizing viscosity differences of saliva samples collected from COPD patients and Healthy Control (HC). For this purpose, a portable dielectric biosensor, capable of providing real-time measurements, was developed. The sensor performance for dielectric characterization of mediums with high water contents, such as saliva, was evaluated using isopropanol-water mixtures. Subsequently, saliva samples, collected from COPD patients and HC, were investigated for clinical assessments. The radio frequency biosensor provided high repeatability of 1.1% throughout experiments. High repeatability, ease of cleaning, low-cost, and portability of the biosensor made it a suitable technology for point-of-care applications.

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