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Publications 2018

since January 2018

(1) You've Got the Whole World in Your Hands [From the Guest Editors' Desk]
E. Ackerman, N. Engheta, I. Hosako, D. Kissinger
IEEE Microwave Magazine 19(3), 12 (2018)

(2) A Low-Power Wideband D-Band LNA in a 130 nm BiCMOS Technology for Imaging Applications
E. Aguilar, A. Hagelauer, D. Kissinger, R. Weigel
Proc. 19th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF), 27 (2018)

(3) An On-Board Differential Patch Array for 79 GHz Single-Channel Radar Applications
W. Ahmad, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
Proc. 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2018), 1385 (2018)
This paper demonstrates the design and characterization of an on-board 4x2 corporate-fed differential patch array at 79 GHz band to equip a fully differential millimeter-wave radar transceiver. The array is based on two single-ended 4x1 arrays and it has a measured peak gain of more than 14 dBi over the 77-81 GHz band with a simulated efficiency of more than 60%.

(4) Experimental Evaluation of 61 GHz Differential Compensated Chip-on-Board Interconnect for FMCW Radar
W. Ahmad, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS 2018), 274 (2018)

(5) A Linear Differential Transimpedance Amplifier for 100 Gb/s Integrated Coherent Optical Fiber Receivers
A. Awny, R. Nagulapalli, M. Kroh, J. Hoffmann, P. Runge, D. Micusik, G. Fischer, A.C. Ulusoy, M. Ko, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 66(2), 973 (2018)
This paper presents the design and measurements of a 32-Gb/s differential-input differential-output transimpedance amplifier (TIA) employed in dual polarization integrated coherent
receivers for 100-Gb Ethernet. A circuit technique is shown that uses a replica TIA to stabilize the operating point of the two shunt-feedback input stages as well as to cancel the dc part of the two complementary input currents and balances their offset. The TIA can be operated in two modes, an automatic gain control mode to retain a good total harmonic distortion (THD) over a wide dynamic range and a manual gain control mode. Electrical as well as optical-electrical characterization of the TIA are presented. It achieves a maximum differential transimpedance of 74 dB, 33 GHz of 3-dB bandwidth, 12.2 pA/√Hz of average input-referred noise current density with the photodiode, 900 mVpp of maximum differential output swing, less than 1% of THD for 600 mVpp differential output swing, and 500 μApp differential input current. The linearity of the TIA is furthermore demonstrated with PAM4 measurements at 25 Gbaud. The dual TIA chip is fabricated in a 0.13-μm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology,dissipates 436 mW of power and occupies 2 mm2 of area.

(6) Dual-Resonator Lamb Wave Strain Sensor with Temperature Compensation and Enhanced Sensitivity
S. Dou, J. Cao, H. Zhou, C. Chen, Y. Wang, X. Mu, J. Yang, D. Wang, Z. Shang
Applied Physics Letters 113(9), 093502 (2018)
In this letter, we demonstrate a high-temperature dual-resonator Lamb wave tensile strain sensor which can achieve temperature compensation in a wide temperature range and has high strain sensitivities. This sensor consists of two identical AlN-on-SOI Lamb wave resonators (LWR) adhered onto a uniaxial tensile plate, with the wave propagating directions in the two LWRs parallel and perpendicular to the tensile axis respectively. The most obvious higher-order Lamb wave modes, i.e. the A4, S4 and S5 modes, in the "parallel" LWR present high strain coefficients of -0.23 ppm/με, -0.48 ppm/με and -0.22 ppm/με; whereas in the "perpendicular" LWR they demonstrate smaller strain coefficients with opposite sign. The S4 modes in the two LWRs have almost the same temperature coefficients. Based on the experiment results, a generally applicable beat frequency method between these two LWRs is proposed to realize temperature compensation as well as high-sensitivity strain measurement.
 

(7) High-Temperature High-Sensitivity AlN-on-SOI Lamb Wave Resonant Strain Sensor
S. Dou, M. Qi, C. Chen, H. Zhou, Y. Wang, Z. Shang, J. Yang, D. Wang, X. Mu
AIP Advances 8(6), 065315 (2018)
A piezoelectric AlN-on-SOI structured MEMS Lamb wave resonator (LWR) is presented for high-temperature strain measurement. The LWR has a composite membrane of a 1 μm thick AlN film and a 30 μm thick device silicon layer. The excited acoustic waves include Rayleigh wave and Lamb waves. A tensile strain sensor has been prepared with one LWR mounted on a uniaxial tensile plate, and its temperature characteristics from 15.4°C to 250°C and tensile strain behaviors from 0 με to 400 με of Rayleigh wave and S4 mode Lamb wave were tested. The temperature test verifies the adaptability of the tensile strain sensor to temperature up to 250°C, and S4 mode Lamb wave and Rayleigh wave represent almost the same temperature characteristics. The strain test demonstrates that S4 mode Lamb wave shows much higher strain sensitivity (-0.48 ppm/με) than Rayleigh wave (0.05 ppm/με) and confirms its advantage of strain 2 sensitivity. Finally, for this one-LWR strain sensor, a method of beat frequency between S4 mode Lamb wave and Rayleigh wave is proposed for temperature compensation and high-sensitivity strain readout.

(8) A 216 - 256 GHz Fully Differential Frequency Multiplier-by-8 Chain with 0 dBm Output Power
M.H. Eissa, A. Malignaggi, M. Ko, K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
EuMA International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies 10(5-6), 562 (2018)
(DFG-THz LoC)

(9) Modular Wideband 1-15 GHz Transmitter Channelizer for High Data Rate Communication
M.H. Eissa, A. Malignaggi, G. Panic, L. Lopacinski, R. Kraemer, D. Kissinger
Proc. 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter-Waves (GSMM 2018), (2018)
(fast spot)
This work presents a modular wideband transmitter channelizer for THz-communications, manufactured in a 130nm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology with fT / fmax = 300 / 500 GHz. Three independent I/Q baseband signals are upconverted to different intermediate frequencies and then bonded in current domain. A local oscillator leakage cancellation functionality is implemented on chip within the input stage to enhance the dynamic range. Single ended inputs were utilized in order to reduce the pin count, for a more practical realization and higher potential toward future system scaling. The transmitter channelizer achieves an output 3-dB bandwidth of 15 GHz. LO rejection of 74 dBc at the center frequency was measured after calibration. It dissipates 355mW and occupies 1.5mm2. With these specifications the presented circuitry suits well as a practical solution for wideband channelization for THz-communications applications, with a potential scaling-up to higher number of channels.

(10) Wideband 240-GHz Transmitter and Receiver in BiCMOS Technology with 25-Gbit/s Data Rate
M.H. Eissa, A. Malignaggi, R. Wang, M. Elkhouly, K. Schmalz, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits 53(9), 2532 (2018)
(WORTECS)
In this work a fully integrated wideband 240 GHz transceiver front-end with on-chip antenna is demonstrated in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology with fT / fmax = 300 / 500 GHz and local backside etching option. Within the transmitter, the upconversion is provided by fundamental mixing using a modified Gilbert cell mixer driven by a multiplier-by-8 local oscillator (LO) chain. The transmitter achieves a 3-dB RF bandwidth of 35 GHz with a saturated output power of -0.8 dBm. The down converter is equipped with a mixer first architecture. The mixer is designed utilizing a transimpedance amplifier as load for enhanced noise and bandwidth performance. For DC coupled receiver, two DC offset cancellation loops are implemented within the receiver chain. It achieves a 3-dB RF bandwidth of 55 GHz, minimum single side band noise figure (SSB NF) of 13.5 dB and a gain of 32 dB with 25 dB gain control. A wideband on-chip double folded-dipole antenna and an on-board optical lens are utilized to demonstrate a wireless link achieving 20 and 25 Gb/s data rates at BERs of 6.3x10-6 and 2.2x10-4, respectively, across a distance of 15 cm. The transmitter and receiver consume 375mW and 575mW, respectively, which correspond to power efficiencies of 15 pJ/bit for the transmitter and 23 pJ/bit for the receiver. They occupy a silicon area of 4.3mm2 and 4.5mm2, respectively.

 

(11) A Comparison of Two Frequency Synthesizer Architectures in SiGe BiCMOS for FMCW Radar
A. Ergintav, F. Herzel, A. Mushtaq, W. Debski, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. 22nd International Microwave and Radar Conference (MIKON 2018), 441 (2018)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
We present a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) with an option to operate either in single-loop or in dual-loop configuration. The PLL is composed of two chips; a voltage
controlled oscillator (VCO) chip and a synthesizer chip that are integrated on one printed circuit board. In the synthesizer chip, a chirp generation circuit is included for frequency-modulated
continuous-wave (FMCW) radar systems. The measurement results reveal that in the steady state the dual-loop operation is superior over single-loop operation due to its lower in-band
phase noise. This makes it attractive for FMCW radar using slow frequency ramps. By contrast, in the case of fast frequency ramps the single-loop configuration is preferred due to its higher
VCO gain resulting in a faster frequency settling. The circuits are fabricated in a 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS technology and are well suited for highly integrated FMCW radar systems at 80GHz.
They offer high flexibility in programming ramp type, ramp duration and modulation bandwidth.

(12) An Investigation of Phase Noise of a Fractional-N PLL in the Course of FMCW Chirp Generation
A. Ergintav, F. Herzel, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2018), (2018)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
In this paper, thermal and 1/f noise of a fractional-N charge pump (CP) phase-locked loop (PLL) are described in the framework of a linear, time-invariant continuous-time model. An
optimization guideline for minimizing the in-band phase noise of an integrated fractional-N PLL for generating a frequencymodulated continuous-wave (FMCW) signal is presented. Under such an operational condition, the PLL output frequency is not constant but is linearly changing in time. Hence, not the PLL output, but the programmable feedback divider output is
monitored to investigate the phase noise dependence on the loop parameters and the ramp slope. For this purpose, the phase noise of this signal is measured as a function of charge pump current, loop filter capacitance and sweep time. The resulting low-frequency rms jitter is reduced by 6 to 9 dB with doubling the charge pump current, reduced by 6 to 12 dB with doubling the sweep time. These findings are in good agreement with the developed phase-noise model for charge pump PLLs under FMCW modulation. A programmable loop filter capacitance is suggested to accommodate the static phase offset to the ramp slope.

(13) Considerations on the Design Methodology for an Integrated Gate Driver
N. Fiebig, G. Fischer, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Kissinger
Proc. 16. GMM/ITG Fachtagung - Entwicklung von Analogschaltungen mit CAE-Methoden (ANALOG 2018), 131 (2018)
(GaNonCMOS)
Design considerations for a high-voltage output driver in a 0.13 µm 3.3 V BiCMOS technology are presented. The use of a stacked devices topology allows the driver to operate at three times the nominal supply voltage. Hot carrier degradation is reduced by operating within the voltage limits forced by the design rules. A design with only fully isolated transistors realises negative supply domains which deliver a swing of -7.5 V with a peak current of 2.5 A at the switched output stage. Experiences during the different design phases are provided. Hints for using soft and hardware, for the measurement and for the macro modelling are indicated.

(14) Antenna and Package Design for 61- and 122-GHz Radar Sensors in Embedded Wafer-Level Ball Grid Array Technology
M. Frank, T. Reissland, F. Lurz, M. Voelkel, F. Lambrecht, S. Kiefl, P. Ghesquiere, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, R. Weigel, A. Koelpin
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 66(12), 5156 (2018)
(radar4FAD)
This paper suggests the usage of an optimized structure of the embedded wafer-level ball grid array technology for millimeter-wave antennas-in-package. Multiple antenna arrays
in a second redistribution layer have been designed, evaluated, and integrated with different transceivers to form very compact sensor packages for 61- and 122-GHz radar applications. The resulting packages contain a complete radar front end while featuring dimensions of 8 mm×8 mm. The packages are easy to assemble and replaceable. Theoretical considerations, numerical results, and measurements have been carried out for the single
components. For the verification of the sensor packages, a system demonstrator was developed, and measurements have been performed in continuous-wave mode. At both frequencies, promising system performance regarding range and distance errors could
be confirmed without the usage of complex processing and calibration algorithms.

(15) 100 Gb/s Differential Linear TIAs with less than 10 pA/√Hz in 130 nm SiGe:C BiCMOS
I. Garcia Lopez, A. Awny, P. Rito, M. Ko, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits 53(2), 458 (2018)
The design methodology and circuit implementation of a transimpedance (TI) amplifier (TIA) featuring low averaged input-referred current noise density without compromising the TIA bandwidth (BW) are presented. The technology role in the key performance metrics is also discussed and verified by means of two analogous TIA designs implemented in two different 130-nm SiGe:C BiCMOS processes from IHP, SG13S with fT / fmax = 250/340 GHz and SG13G2 with fT / fmax = 300/500 GHz. Both TIAs adopt a fully differential linear architecture with three stages: an input shunt-feedback TI stage followed by a variable gain amplifier which provides
post-amplification with 15-dB gain control range and an output 50-Ω buffer. The TIA in SG13S features 68.5 dBΩ differential TI gain, 42-GHz 3-dB BW, and 8 pA/√Hz averaged input-referred
current noise density while the second TIA in SG13G2 provides 65 dB differential TI gain, 66-GHz 3-dB BW, and 7.6 pA/√Hz. Measured total harmonic distortion in both TIAs in the maximum gain condition is better than 5% for ∼800 mVppd output swing and input currents of ∼300 μApp. Both circuits dissipate 150 mW of power and are shown to operate at up to 100 Gb/s data rate with clean PRBS31 non-return to zero and PAM-4 eye diagrams. To the author’s best knowledge, the reported TIAs exhibit the lowest averaged input-referred current noise density shown to date at a BW sufficient to support 100 Gb/s net data rate, surpassing other silicon-based and InP implementations toward the next-generation 400 Gb/s optical links.

(16) A DC-75 GHz Bandwidth and 54 dBΩ Gain TIA with 10.5 pA/√Hz in 130 nm SiGe:C BiCMOS
I. Garcia Lopez, P. Rito, A. Awny, M. Ko, D. Kissinger, A.C. Ulusoy
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 28(1), 61 (2018)
A broadband low-noise amplifier with transimpedance (TI) feedback implemented in a 130-nm
SiGe:C BiCMOS technology with fT of 300 GHz is presented. The circuit provides 22-dB gain and 75-GHz bandwidth while dissipating only 95 mW of power, achieving a gain bandwidth
against dc power efficiency (GBW/Pdc) of 9.9 GHz/mW. Measured noise figure (NF) is 4 dB until 26.5 GHz, rising up to 6 dB at 70 GHz based on simulation. Ultrahigh data rate
support is demonstrated with clear eye diagrams up to 100 Gb/s. Intended as a TI front end for optical receivers, the amplifier features 54-dB TI gain with only 10.9 pA/Hz averaged
input-referred current noise density. Measured input-referred 1-dB compression point at 1 GHz occurs at −20 dBm input power. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the proposed
amplifier exhibits the highest GBW/Pdc with the lowest NF reported to date, toward the next generation 400 Gb/s Ethernet.

(17) Monolithically Integrated Si Photonics Transmitters in 0.25 µm BiCMOS Platform for High-Speed Optical Communications
I. Garcia Lopez, R. Pedro, D. Petousi, St. Lischke, D. Knoll, M. Kroh, L. Zimmermann, M. Ko, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2018), 1312 (2018)

(18) Integrated Systems-in-Package
A. Hagelauer, M. Wojnowski, K. Pressel, R. Weigel, D. Kissinger
IEEE Microwave Magazine 19(1), 48 (2018)

(19) Design and Characterization of a Differential Microstrip Patch Antenna Array at 122 GHz
R. Hasan, W.A. Ahmad, J.H. Lu, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
Proc. 12th IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2018), 28 (2018)
(radar4FAD)
This paper presents a differential microstrip patch antenna array that operates at 122 GHz and is suitable for radar applications. The differential line was chosen in the proposed antenna due to the differential radar transceiver. The microstrip patch antenna array was designed to achieve a higher gain and bandwidth compared to a single element antenna. An 8-element series-fed array was designed, fabricated and measured. The 8-element array provides an impedance bandwidth of 14 GHz and a gain of around 13.74dBi at 122 GHz. These measurement results are also in good agreement with the simulation results.

(20) A 15-50 GHz Multiplexer Circuit in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Ultra-Wide Frequency Ramps in FMCW Radar
F. Herzel, A. Ergintav, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Nordic Circuits and Systems Conference (NORCAS 2018), 103 (2018)

(21) Analysis of Ranging Precision in an FMCW Radar Measurement using a Phase-Locked Loop
F. Herzel, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I 65(2), 783 (2018)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
The standard deviation in a frequency modulated continuous wave radar distance measurement using a charge pump phase-locked loop (PLL) is calculated analytically. The
phase noise of the PLL is modeled as an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process resulting in a Lorentzian spectrum. We calculate the distance error as a function of the receiver noise bandwidth and the target distance. Depending on the frequency estimation algorithm and the target distance, the rms distance error due to PLL phase noise increases by about 6–9 dB with doubling the target distance. By contrast, the white noise in the radar receiver raises the distance error by about 12 dB in the far field with distance doubling, making this error contribution dominant for large target distances. These findings are verified by measurements on a scalable 61/122-GHz radar sensor platform.

(22) Error Analysis of Target Angle and Angular Velocity in a PLL-Based FMCW Radar Measurement
F. Herzel, D. Kissinger
Proc. 15th European Radar Conference (EuRAD 2018), 67 (2018)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)

(23) Design of a 28-32 GHz Low-Noise PLL with Automatic Frequency Calibration
F. Herzel, A. Ergintav, U. Jagdhold, D. Kissinger
Proc. 16. GMM/ITG-Fachtagung - Entwicklung von Analogschaltungen mit CAE-Methoden (ANALOG 2018), 57 (2018)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)

(24) 30 GHz-Voltage Controlled Oscillator Operating at 4 K
A. Hollmann, D. Jirovec, M. Kucharski, D. Kissinger, G. Fischer, L.R. Schreiber
Review of Scientific Instruments 89(11), 114701 (2018)
Solid-state qubit manipulation and read-out fidelities are reaching fault-tolerance, but quantum error correction requires millions of physical qubits and therefore a scalable quantum computer architecture. To solve signal-line bandwidth and fan-out problems, microwave sources required for qubit manipulation might be embedded close to the qubit chip, typically operating at temperatures below4 K. Here, we perform the first low temperature measurements of a 130 nm BiCMOS based SiGe voltage controlled
oscillator at cryogenic temperature. We determined the frequency and output power dependence on temperature and magnetic field up to 5 T and measured the temperature influence on its noise performance. The device maintains its full functionality from 300 K to 4 K. The carrier frequency at 4 K increases by 3% with respect to the carrier frequency at 300 K, and the output power at 4 K increases by 10 dB relative to the output power at 300 K. The frequency tuning range of approximately 20% remains unchanged between 300 K and 4 K. In an in-plane magnetic field of 5 T, the carrier frequency shifts by only 0.02% compared to the frequency at zero magnetic field.

(25) A Compensation Scheme for Non-Ideal Circuit Effects in Biomedical Impedance Sensor
Y. Hong, W.L. Goh, Y. Wang
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing 95(3), 473 (2018)
(DFG-THz LoC)
The accuracy of an I/Q based biomedical impedance sensing sensor (IQBIS) suffers significantly from the PVT effects of the analog front-end, such as the amplitude errors of the stimulation signals, gain mismatches, amplitude and phase imbalances of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals, etc. These practical effects will severely impede the system performance if handled improperly. In this paper, the degradations of sensing performance by such imperfections are mathematically analyzed and quantified. Following theoretical studies, a digitally controlled correction approach is proposed to finely alleviate these impairments. The performance of the proposed scheme had been verified using Simulink and MATLAB. With the proposed error correction scheme, the accuracy is improved by at least 17 times compared to that of the typical IQBIS, for both real and imaginary values of impedance. Thus, the proposed method is very useful for IQBIS, in resisting degradation in sensing accuracies due to the process-voltage-temperature (PVT) effects.
 

(26) A Hetero-Integrated W-Band Transmitter Module in InP-on-BiCMOS Technology
M. Hossain, M.H. Eissa, M. Hrobak, D. Stoppel, N. Weimann, A. Malignaggi, A. Mai, D. Kissinger, W. Heinrich, V. Krozer
Proc. 48th European Microwave Week (EuMW 2018), 97 (2018)
(SciFab)
This paper presents a W-band hetero-integrated transmitter module using InP-on-BiCMOS technology. It consists of a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) in 0.25 μm BiCMOS technology and a frequency multiplier followed by a double-balanced Gilbert mixer cell in 0.8 μm InP-HBT technology, which is integrated on top of the BiCMOS MMIC in a wafer-level BCB bonding process. The PLL operates from 45 GHz to 47 GHz and the module achieves a measured single sideband (SSB) power conversion loss of 20 dB and 22 dB at 88 GHz and 95 GHz, respectively, limited by the output power from the PLL source. The entire circuit consumes 434 mW DC power. The chip area of the module is 2.5x1.3 mm². To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first complex hetero-integrated module reported so far.

(27) A Low-Power K-Band Colpitts VCO with 30% Tuning Range in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
F.I. Jamal, J. Wessel, D. Kissinger
Proc. 19th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2018), 37 (2018)
(Nexgen)

(28) A Fully Integrated Low-Power 30 GHz Complex Dielectric Sensor in a 0.25-µm BiCMOS Technology
F.I. Jamal, S. Guha, M.H. Eissa, J. Wessel, D. Kissinger
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF, and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology 2(3), 163 (2018)
(Nexgen)
This paper presents an integrated low-power dielectric sensor in K-band frequencies implemented in a 0.25 um SiGe BiCMOS process including the sensing front-end and readout circuits. The sensor enables the measurement of both real and imaginary part of permittivity of the material under test (MUT). The MUT is exposed on the resonator component in a sensing oscillator and the oscillator results in permittivity and conductivity dependent change in the output frequency and output power, respectively. The frequency information is translated into DC voltage using a frequency discriminator and the output power is detected using a power detector. The sensor has been calibrated using iso-propanol, ethanol and methanol solutions. Methanol-ethanol mixture solutions, in steps of 25% of concentration change, have been used to demonstrate the functionality of the sensor. The selectivity is showed using methanol-ethanol mixtures with concentration differences of 5% around a mixture ratio of 50:50. The chip is 2.3 sq. mm in size and consumes 50 mW power. The sensor measures complex permittivity within 5% accuracy for the real part and 3% for the imaginary part. As a compact and low-power solution the sensor is a potential candidate for minimal invasive investigations of chemicals and bio-materials at mm-wave frequencies.

(29) Sensitive Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Gas Spectroscopy Based on SiGe BiCMOS Technology
D. Kissinger, N. Rothbart, K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, H.-W. Hübers
Proc. 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2018), (2018)
(DFG-AGS)

(30) 110–135 GHz SiGe BiCMOS Frequency Quadrupler Based on a Single Gilbert Cell
M. Ko, M.H. Eissa, J. Borngräber, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
Proc. 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMIC 2018), 101 (2018)

(31) A Low-Power VCSEL Driver in a Complementary SiGe:C BiCMOS Technology
M. Ko, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
Proc. 19th IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2018), 45 (2018)
This paper presents a driver IC for commoncathode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) fabricated with a complementary 0.25-μm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology with fT/fmax of 110/180 GHz for npn and 95/140 GHz for pnp transistors, respectively. By utilizing pnp transistors as an active load in the output stage, the driver exhibits a low-power and high-speed operation, consuming only 33.8 mW to drive the bias/modulation currents of 3/3 mA to the 160-Ω VCSEL-equivalent circuit and demonstrating clear electrical eye diagrams up to 40 Gb/s. To the best knowledge of the authors, the reported energy efficiency of 0.84 pJ/b is the best in comparison to other state-of-the-art common-cathode VCSEL drivers.

(32) A Monostatic E-Band Radar Transceiver With a Tunable TX-to-RX Leakage Canceler for Automotive Applications
M. Kucharski, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2018), 591 (2018)
(EMPHASE)

(33) A Universal Monolithic E-Band Transceiver for Automotive Radar Applications and V2V Communication
M. Kucharski, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
Proc. 19th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF), 12 (2018)
(EMPHASE)

(34) Scalable 79- and 158-GHz Integrated Radar Transceivers in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
M. Kucharski, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. 22nd International Microwave and Radar Conference (MIKON 2018), 449 (2018)
(radar4FAD)

(35) D-Band Frequency Quadruplers in BiCMOS Technology
M. Kucharski, M.H. Eissa, A. Malignaggi, D. Wang, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits 53(9), 2465 (2018)
This paper presents two D-band frequency quadruplers (FQs) employing different circuit techniques. First FQ is a 129–171-GHz stacked Gilbert-cell multiplier using a bootstrapping
technique, which improves the bandwidth and the conversion gain with respect to the conventional topology. Stacked architecture enables current reuse for the second frequency
doubler resulting in a compact and energy-efficient design. The circuit reaches 3-dB bandwidth of 42 GHz, which is the highest among similar reported quadruplers. It achieves 2.2-dBm saturated output power, 5-dB peak conversion gain, and 1.7% peak DC-to-RF efficiency. The stacked FQ occupies 0.08 mm2 and consumes 22.7 mA from 4.4-V supply. Second presented circuit is a transformer-based injection-locked FQ (T-ILFQ) employing
an E-band push–push voltage-controlled oscillator (PP-VCO). The VCO is a self-buffered common-collector Colpitts oscillator with a transformer formed on emitter inductors. Proposed configuration does not reduce the tuning range of the VCO, thus providing wide locking range and high sensitivity with respect to the injected signal. The T-ILFQ achieves 21.1% locking range, which is the highest among other reported injection-locked
frequency multipliers. The peak output power is −4 dBmand the input sensitivity reaches −22 dBm. The circuit occupies 0.09 mmand consumes 14.8 mA from 3.3-V supply.

(36) D-Band Surface-Wave Modulator and Signal Source with 40 dB Extinction Ratio and 3.7 mW Output Power in 65 nm CMOS
Y. Liang, H. Yu, C.C. Boon, C. Li, D. Kissinger, Y. Wang
Proc. 44th European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC 2018), 142 (2018)
High extinction ratio (ER) modulator and high output power source are demonstrated in 65 nm CMOS by generating the surface-wave at D-band. By introducing subwavelength periodic corrugation structure, surface plasmon polariton (SPP) is established to propagate TM-mode signal with strongly localized surface-wave, significantly reducing the radiation loss at sub-THz. A high-Q surface-wave resonator is formed by periodically drilling grooves onto split ring resonator (SRR) unit-cells with interleaving placement. Modulation is realized by tuning the inner ring of the stacked SRR. A four-ways power combined fundamental 80 GHz coupled-oscillator-network (CON) is realized by incorporating the surface-wave resonator unit-cell, which is frequency doubled to 160 GHz. Measured results show that modulator achieves the best isolation and ER under the smallest area, and the proposed CON achieves high power efficiency and power density.

(37) On-Chip Terahertz Surface-Wave Transmission Line Based on Folded Strips
Y. Liang, C.C. Boon, H. Yu, C. Ma, D. Kissinger, Y. Wang
Proc. 30th Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2018), 198 (2018)
(FlexTHzSoC)
Free-space EM-wave based GHz interconnect has significant loss and crosstalk that cannot be deployed as low-power and dense I/Os for future network-on-chip integration of many-core and memory. This paper proposes a novel sub-THz (0.1T-1T) surface-wave transmission line (T-line) with folded strip for strong field localization in CMOS technology. By introducing sub-wavelength periodical folded strip onto the conventional transmission line, the proposed structure demonstrates a greater bending dispersion relation up to THz, implying stronger electrical field (E-field) enhancement into the metal/dielectric interfaces. Moreover, this highly compact structure has capability to achieve both impedance and momentum conversion at the injection interface. This work potentially paves the way for integrating 2-D surface-wave T-line with CMOS building blocks.

(38) Implementation of a Multi-Core Data Link Layer Processor for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, M. Brzozowski, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 87th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2018), (2018)
(fast spot)
In this paper, we discuss the main challenges and our solutions proposed for implementation of a high-speed data link layer processor. Our target is to achieve processing throughput faster than 20 Gbps. Meanwhile a single core of our implementation achieves ‘only’ ~28 Gbps, we propose a multi-core solution that can run up to ~110 Gbps. For this purpose, we use baseband signal splitters and combiners. Alternatively, we come up with Parallel Sequence Spread Spectrum (PSSS). After splitting the input signal, we divide the required processing-effort among a set of parallel baseband and data link layer processors. The discussed data link layer processor uses hybrid-automatic-repeat-request-I (HARQ-I) with link adaptation and selective fragment repetitions. Such solution significantly improves the efficiency of the method and allows to reduce the implementation complexity when compared to HARQ-III. The main issue discussed in the article is power and energy consumption. Our solution consumes maximally 300 mW at 27.9 Gbps, including forward error correction (FEC) engine.

(39) Implementation of a Multi-Core Data Link Layer Processor for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, M. Brzozowski, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 87th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2018), (2018)
(DFG-SPP1655)
In this paper, we discuss the main challenges and our solutions proposed for implementation of a high-speed data link layer processor. Our target is to achieve processing throughput faster than 20 Gbps. Meanwhile a single core of our implementation achieves ‘only’ ~28 Gbps, we propose a multi-core solution that can run up to ~110 Gbps. For this purpose, we use baseband signal splitters and combiners. Alternatively, we come up with Parallel Sequence Spread Spectrum (PSSS). After splitting the input signal, we divide the required processing-effort among a set of parallel baseband and data link layer processors. The discussed data link layer processor uses hybrid-automatic-repeat-request-I (HARQ-I) with link adaptation and selective fragment repetitions. Such solution significantly improves the efficiency of the method and allows to reduce the implementation complexity when compared to HARQ-III. The main issue discussed in the article is power and energy consumption. Our solution consumes maximally 300 mW at 27.9 Gbps, including forward error correction (FEC) engine.

(40) Growth of High-Quality Graphene for Photonics
M. Lukosius, M. Lisker, G. Dziallas, J. Dabrowski, M. Fraschke, G. Lippert, A. Wolff, A. Mai, Ch. Wenger
Proc. 8th Graphene 2018, (2018)
(Graphen)

(41) Modelling and Performance Study of Monolithically Integrated Depletion Type Silicon IQ Modulators
G.R. Mehrpoor, B. Wohlfeil, M. Eiselt, L. Zimmermann, P. Rito, J.-P. Elbers, B. Schmauss
Proc. ITG-Fachtagung - Photonische Netze (2018), 103 (2018)
(SPEED)

We report on an analytical model for monitoring the bias condition of Silicon IQ modulators. Based on measured phase modulator behavior, ohmic heaters and modulator transfer functions, transmitter performance investigation is attained versus applied bias voltages. We underline error vector magnitude and quadrature error as appropriate metrics for quality measurements of Silicon coherent transmitters.

(42) Harmonic Tuning of Stacked SiGe Power Amplifiers Using Active Load Pull
A.A. Nawaz, M. Ko, A. Malignaggi, D. Kissinger, J.D. Albrecht, A.C. Ulusoy
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 28(3), 245 (2018)

(43) A Low Power-Injection Locked VCO for Implantable MICS Band Transmitter with Wireless Frequency Reference and Tune-While-Lock Channel Calibration
M. Nenadovic, N. Fiebig, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger, J. Wessel
Proc. 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2018), 2993 (2018)
(Nexgen)
This paper presents the design of an 800 MHz VCO for both free-running and injection locked operation in a novel low power transmitter with wireless frequency reference, operating in the MICS band (402-405 MHz). The transmitter employs simultaneous tuning and locking, to set the desired channel with a minimal injected power. The VCO is designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS process and has a core area of 0.5 mm². The measurement of the free-running
VCO shows -107 dBc/Hz phase noise at 300 kHz frequency offset. If locked to an external frequency reference the VCO shows -118 dBc/Hz phase noise at 300 kHz offset, while consuming 3 mA from a 1.2 V supply (3.6 mW). When the VCO is tuned during the locking, -20 dBm of reference power is required to enable operation in the whole MICS band. The measured phase noise of the free-running VCO ensures reliable calibration of the proposed transmitter and the locked VCO satisfies all requirements of an implantable device using MICS band data transmission. Therefore, this VCO presents a key building block of an injection locked, frequency agile, implantable transmitter for the MICS band.

(44) A 0.48 mW Fully Integrated MICS Band VCO in SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Medical Implant Communication
M. Nenadovic, N. Fiebig, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger, J. Wessel
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS 2018), 1 (2018)
(Nexgen)
This paper presents the design of a low power VCO, that is a part of a fully integrated, directly modulated, VCO-only transmitter in MICS band (402-405 MHz). The differential LC-tank VCO is designed for a MSK transmitter supporting up to 200 kbps data rate for the application in a glucose sensor implant. The chip is fabricated in the CMOS section of IHP`s 0.13 um BiCMOS process and has an active area of 0.86 mm2. The measured VCO has shown -110 dBc/Hz phase noise at 200 kHz offset from the carrier and a tuning range of 22.6 MHz (5.6 %) while consuming 0.55 mA from a 0.87 V supply (0.48 mW). The phase noise performance, size and power consumption of the measured VCO satisfy the requirements of the implantable electronics. This VCO is therefore an important block in building a more complex, multi-channel MICS band transmitter.

(45) On-Chip Antennas in SiGe BiCMOS Technology: Challenges, State of the Art and Future Directions
H.J. Ng, R. Wang, D. Kissinger
Proc. 30th Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2018), 621 (2018)
(radar4FAD)
This paper reviews recent works on on-chip antennas utilizing different integration concepts in Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technologies. Challenges as well as key design parameters of the on-chip antennas are addressed and a novel antenna integration concept based on a micromachining technique is described. The utilization of the on-chip antennas in different applications is also discussed. The integration of the on-chip antennas in the radar transceivers allows for a high miniaturization potential of the sensors. Compact high-resolution radar sensors at frequencies above 100 GHz become feasible and attractive for short range applications.

(46) Highly Miniaturized 120-GHz SIMO and MIMO Radar Sensor with On-Chip Folded Dipole Antennas for Range and Angular Measurements
H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 66(6), 2592 (2018)
(radar4FAD)
This paper describes a highly-integrated 2-channel system-on-chip radar sensor with folded dipole antennas that exhibit better antenna gain and radiation efficiency due to the use of the novel selective localized backside etching technique. The sensor can be utilized in single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) radar system by combining the 2 transmit (TX) channels to increase the effective isotropic radiated power by 6\,dB. This results in an improved standard deviation by a factor of 2. The transceiver is equipped with BPSK modulators as well as I/Q receivers and can be utilized in multiple-input-multiple-output (SIMO) radar system using time and delta-sigma modulator-based frequency division multiplexing technique. This results in an improved angle resolution by a factor of 1.5. It is also equipped with a 30-GHz VCO that is complemented with a prescaler and frequency quadrupler to generate a 120-GHz carrier signal. Radar measurement using digital-beamforming method with 10-GHz modulation bandwidth was performed to show the applicabilty of the proposed system.

(47) Scalable mm-Wave 4-Channel Radar SoC with Vector Modulators and Demodulators for MIMO and Phased Array Applications
H.J. Ng, R. Feger, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2018), 1472 (2018)
(HomiRadar)
This paper describes a scalable 120-GHz multi-channel radar system-on-chip in a SiGe BiCMOS technology. The chip includes a 4-channel transceiver (TRX) and folded-dipole antennas with a high radiation efficiency due to the use of the localized-backside etching technique. The TRX is equipped with vector modulators as well as demodulators and can be used for analog as well as digital beamforming. Several of these multi-channel TRXs can be cascaded to form a daisy chain to build phased array as well as MIMO radar applications. A frequency-division multiplexing MIMO radar system with single-sideband delta-sigma modulation was created using the implemented chip to show its applicability.

(48) Pseudo-Random Noise Radar for Short-Range Applications in SiGe Technologies
H.J. Ng, M. Kucharski, D. Kissinger
Proc. 22nd International Conference on Micowaves, Radar, and Wireless Communications (MIKON 2018), 445 (2018)
(radar4FAD)
This paper describes an alternative scalable radar architecture based on pseudo-random noise (PRN) sensing technique. It is very suitable for high resolution automotive applications and can be implemented in standard Silicon-Germanium technology. Several single-channel transceivers are cascaded together to build a MIMO radar system with a flexible number of channels. The transceivers are equipped with binary phase-shift keying modulators and I/Q receiver. A large set of suitable pseudo-random binary sequences with different desirable properties is available. The design of the correlator to simplify the receive path is discussed.

(49) A Radiation Hardened 16 GS/s Arbitrary Waveform Generator IC for THz-Range Chirp-Transform Spectrometer
P. Ostrovskyy, O. Schrape, K. Tittelbach-Helmrich, F. Herzel, G. Fischer, D. Hellmann, P. Börner, A. Loose, P. Hartogh, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Nordic Circuits and Systems Conference (NORCAS 2018), 144 (2018)
(ChirpIC Phase2)
This paper describes a radiation hardening  design approach of a dual channel 16 GSps single chip arbitrary waveform generator - a complex mixed-signal ASIC - that consists of a low phase noise 16 GHz PLL, two 1.6 Mbit SRAM blocks, two multiplexing chains, and two 4-bit DACs. The ASIC is dedicated to be a part of a THz-range spectrometer that shall operate in a deep-space environment. Under stringent power budget conditions, a selective radiation protection of the ASIC has been applied. The arbitrary waveform generator fabricated in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS process demonstrates the required functionality and can be further tested in an irradiation facility.

(50) A 120 GHz SiGe BiCMOS Monostatic Transceiver for Radar Applications
E. Öztürk, D. Genschow, U. Yodprasit, B. Yilmaz, D. Kissinger, W. Debski, W. Winkler
Proc. 48th European Microwave Week (EuMW 2018), 41 (2018)

(51) A 94-GHz Five-Port Reflectometer for Measuring Complex Reflection Coefficient using 0.13-μm SiGe HBT Detectors
J.A. Qayyum, A.A. Nawaz, M. Ko, A. Malignaggi, D. Kissinger, A.C. Ulusoy
Proc. IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks (WiSNet 2018), 77 (2018)

(52) Terahertz InP HBT Oscillators
J.-S. Rieh, J. Yun, D. Yoon, J. Kim, H. Son
Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Radio-Frequency Integration Technology (RFIT 2018), (2018)
(1THz)
An overview of various high-frequency InP HBT oscillators that can be used as terahertz signal sources is presented. A 300-GHz fundamental-mode oscillator was first developed based on InP HBT technology, and then subsequently modified for additional oscillators with improved function or performance, which includes a 300-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), a 280-GHz high-power oscillator with 10-dBm output, and a 600-GHz push-push oscillator. The 300-GHz oscillator was also successfully employed as a signal source for THz imaging, which is also briefly described.

(53) A 0.87-pJ/b 115-Gb/s 27-1 PRBS Generator in 130-nm SiGe:C BiCMOS Technology
P. Rito, I. Garcia Lopez, M. Ko, A.C. Ulusoy, D. Kissinger
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters 1(2), 42 (2018)
A 2^7-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) generator, implemented in a 130-nm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology with fT/fmax of 300/500 GHz, is presented. The generator uses a modified half-rate clock topology which enables it to operate at data rates up to 115 Gb/s with low power consumption. Time- domain measurements are performed to demonstrate the maximum data rate of the circuit, which delivers a differential output voltage swing of 600 mVpp and dissipates 700 mW. Spectrum measurements are also carried out to validate the generated PRBS sequence. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time a PRBS generator achieves such data rate with a record efficiency of 0.87pJ/b.

(54) Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Human Breath by Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Spectroscopy
N. Rothbart, K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger, H.-W. Hübers
Proc. 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2018), (2018)
(DFG-AGS)

(55) Towards Breath Gas Analysis based on Millimeter-Wave Molecular Spectroscopy
N. Rothbart, H.-W. Hübers, K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger
Frequenz: Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications 72(3-4), 87 (2018)
(DFG-AGS)
Breath gas analysis is a promising non-invasive
tool for medical diagnosis as there are thousands of
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in human breath
that can be used as health monitoring markers.
Millimeter-wave/terahertz molecular spectroscopy is
highly suitable for breath gas analysis due to unique
fingerprint spectra of many VOCs in that frequency
range. We present our recent work on sensor systems
for gas spectroscopy based on integrated transmitters
(TX) and receivers (RX) fabricated in IHP’s 0.13 μm SiGe
BiCMOS technology. For a single-band system, spectroscopic
measurements and beam profiles are presented.
The frequency is tuned by direct voltage-frequency tuning
and by a fractional-n PLL, respectively. The spectroscopic
system includes a folded gas absorption cell with
gas pre-concentration abilities demonstrating the detection
of a 50 ppm mixture of ethanol in ambient air
corresponding to a minimum detectable concentration
of 260 ppb. Finally, the design of a 3-band system covering
frequencies from 225 to 273 GHz is introduced.

(56) Multilayer Millimeter-Wave MCMs
K.K. Samanta, D. Kissinger
IEEE Microwave Magazine 19(1), 20 (2018)

(57) High-Speed, Low-Power and Board-Mountable Optical Transceivers for Scalable & Energy Efficient On-Board Digital Transparent Processors
L. Stampoulidis, E. Kehayas, M. Karppinen, A. Tanskanen, J. Ollila, J. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, Ch. Larsen, M. Sotom, A. Maho, M. Faugeron, N. Venet, M. Ko, P. Ostrovskyy, D. Kissinger, R. Safaisini, R. King, I. McKenzie, J.B. Gonzalez
Proc. International Conference on Space Optics (ICSO 2018), (2018)
(MERLIN)

(58) Fehlertolerante Radarmessungen durch Austausch von Messwerten für hochautomatisiertes Fahren
M. Ulbricht, M. Schölzel, R.T. Syed, H.J. Ng, M. Krstic
Anwendungen und Konzepte der Wirtschaftsinformatik (AKWI) 7, 89 (2018)
(EMPHASE)
Im Bereich des autonomen Fahrens müssen Sensoren und die dazugehörige Datenverarbeitung höchste Ansprüche an Zuverlässigkeit und Fehlertoleranz erfüllen. Gleichzeitig sind jedoch auch möglichst geringe Leistungsaufnahme und minimale Herstellungskosten Ziele des Designs. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir einen Ansatz vor, der diese Ziele, basierend auf einer von uns entwickelten Sensorplattform, sowie verschiedenen Testarten und dem Austausch von Messwerten, erfüllen kann.

(59) Variable Gain Distributed Amplifier with Capacitive Division
C. von Vangerow, D. Stracke, D. Kissinger, T. Zwick
48th European Microwave Week (EuMW 2018), 1249 (2018)

(60) A Newly Developed mm-Wave Sensor for Detecting Plaques of Arterial Vessels
S. Vogt, M. Detert, D. Wagner, J. Wessel, R. Ramzan, W. Nimphius, A. Ramaswamy, S. Guha, Ch. Wenger, F.I. Jamal, M.H. Eissa, U. Schumann, B. Schmidt, G. Rose, Ch. Dahl, I. Rolfes, G. Notzon, Ch. Baer, Th. Musch
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 66(1), 91 (2018)
(PlaqueCharM)
Background Microcalcifications within the fibrous cap of the arteriosclerotic plaques lead to the accrual of plaque-destabilizing mechanical stress. New techniques for plaque screening with small detectors and the ability to differentiate between the smooth and hard elements of plaque formation are necessary.
Method Vascular plaque formations are characterized as calcium phosphate containing structures organized as hydroxylapatite resembling the mineral whitlockite. In transmission and reflexion studies with a simple millimeter wave (mm-wave)–demonstrator, we found that there is a narrow window for plaque detection in arterial vessels because of the tissue water content, the differentiation to fatty tissue, and the dielectric property of air or water, respectively.
Result The new sensor is based on a sensing oscillator working around 27 GHz. The open-stub capacitance determines the operating frequency of the sensor oscillator. The capacitance depends on the dielectric properties of the surrounding material. The sensor components were completely built up in surface mount technique.
Conclusion Completed with a catheter, the sensor based on microwave technology appears as a robust tool ready for further clinical use.

(61) Broadband Variable Gain Amplifier with Low Group Delay Variation
C. von Vangerow, B. Goettel, A. Awny, D. Kissinger, T. Zwick
Proc. 19th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2018), 23 (2018)

(62) Homodyne and Heterodyne Terahertz Dielectric Sensors: Prototyping and Comparison in BiCMOS Technology for Lab-on-Chip Applications
D. Wang, K. Schmalz, M.H. Eissa, J. Borngräber, M. Kucharski, M. Elkhouly, M. Ko, Y. Wang, H.J. Ng, J. Yun, B. Tillack, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Bio Conference (IMBioC 2018), 4 (2018)
(DFG-THz LoC)

(63) Integrated 240-GHz Dielectric Sensor with DC Readout Circuit in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
D. Wang, K. Schmalz, M.H. Eissa, J. Borngräber, M. Kucharski, M. Elkhouly, M. Ko, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 66(9), 4232 (2018)
(DFG-THz LoC)
This paper presents a high-integration miniaturized dielectric spectroscopy system for sensing the change of permittivity at 240 GHz in SiGe BiCMOS  technology.
The sensor features a transducer with a resonator to perform bandpass frequency response, whose complex value of S21 is varied with the permittivity of the sample under test. This variation can be detected and recorded as the change of amplitude and phase of the 240 GHz in-phase and quadrature direct conversion mixer. An external 30 GHz source is employed with cascade frequency multiplier chain to deliver signal through the system with a wide tuning range of 215-245GHz. An addition probe is employed to carry sample and implement chip measurements on probe station. The sensing function of this system is performed with the leaded wire as a metallic sample to be placed on the top of the transducer. Based on the measured dc output voltage changes, the calculated magnitude and phase of IQ signal in the 215-245 GHz range are used to estimate complex permittivity change of MUTs. This dielectric spectroscopy system is also suitable for sensing the complexy permittivity change at higher frequencies in the future THz Lab-on-Chip measurements.

(64) On-Chip Scalable Resonator-Based Transducers for Terahertz Dielectric Sensing in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
D. Wang, K. Schmalz, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger
Proc. 30th IEEE Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2018), 240 (2018)
(DFG-THz LoC)

(65) Contactless Investigation of Dielectric Samples with a High-Q Millimeter-Wave Sensor
J. Wessel, K. Schmalz, F.I. Jamal, D. Kissinger
Proc. 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2018), 5926 (2018)
Experiments using an on-chip sensor in silicon technology for dielectric measurements at 120 GHz are presented. The passive sensor element, a coplanar strip line (CPS) bandpass filter, consists of a combination of short-ended T-stubs placed inside a CPS, yielding a resonant  transmission behavior of the sensor. The high quality factor of this bandpass filter is achieved by both: using edge-coupled lines and removing the substrate beneath the transducer by silicon back-side etching. Measurements showed that the unloaded transducer exhibits a quality factor of 11. The sensor is applied to characterize the cultivation progress of yeast in a glucose medium. Sparameter measurements using RF probes show a recorded S21 center frequency that shifts from 124 GHz to 125GHz within 22 hours of cultivation. The typical dynamic behavior and cultivation phases of yeast are confirmed by millimeter-wave monitoring the cell culture. Experiments prove that detection and characterization of dielectric samples in small volumes can
be performed without contact to the sample and label-free.

(66) Sensitive Permittivity Detector for Dielectric Samples at 120 GHz 
J. Wessel, K. Schmalz, J.C. Scheytt, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS 2018), 136 (2018)
(Nexgen)

(67) High Voltage LDMOS Inverter for On-Chip RF-MEMS Actuation
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, A. Göritz, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 19th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2018), 48 (2018)
(LDMOS)
In this work, two high voltage LDMOS inverters, a charge pump and a differential ring oscillator are designed and combined with a Ka-band RF-MEMS SPDT (single-pole double-throw) switch in a single BiCMOS chip. The circuit is fabricated in a triple well 0.25μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process which includes a LDMOS- and a RFMEMS module. The measured rise and fall times of the high voltage inverter are below 2.5 μs and 2 μs considering a 65 pF capacitor in parallel with a 1M resistor as the load caused by the measurement setup. Simulations based on the RFMEMS electrode capacitance of ˜200 fF – as the real case application – result in a drastically decreased rise (charge) time and fall (discharge) time of 10 ns and 8 ns, respectively. The maximum operating voltage of the LDMOS inverter is 45V, which enables the actuation of the RF-MEMS switch. The measured S-parameters of the RF-MEMS SPDT switch, driven by the developed LDMOS inverters and charge pump, demonstrate the successful implementation.

(68) High Voltage LDMOS Inverter for On-Chip RF-MEMS Actuation
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, A. Göritz, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 19th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2018), 48 (2018)
(MEMS Integration)
In this work, two high voltage LDMOS inverters, a charge pump and a differential ring oscillator are designed and combined with a Ka-band RF-MEMS SPDT (single-pole double-throw) switch in a single BiCMOS chip. The circuit is fabricated in a triple well 0.25μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process which includes a LDMOS- and a RFMEMS module. The measured rise and fall times of the high voltage inverter are below 2.5 μs and 2 μs considering a 65 pF capacitor in parallel with a 1M resistor as the load caused by the measurement setup. Simulations based on the RFMEMS electrode capacitance of ˜200 fF – as the real case application – result in a drastically decreased rise (charge) time and fall (discharge) time of 10 ns and 8 ns, respectively. The maximum operating voltage of the LDMOS inverter is 45V, which enables the actuation of the RF-MEMS switch. The measured S-parameters of the RF-MEMS SPDT switch, driven by the developed LDMOS inverters and charge pump, demonstrate the successful implementation.

(69) A 60 GHz Mixer-Based Reflectometer in 130nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology Toward Dielectric Spectroscopy in Medical Applications
R.K. Yadav, M.H. Eissa, J. Wessel, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Bio Conference (IMBioC 2018), 88 (2018)
(Nexgen)

(70) A 30 GHz Power Detector based Reflectometer in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS for Dielectric Spectroscopy
R.K. Yadav, J. Wessel, M.H. Eissa, F.I. Jamal, M. Kucharski, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2018), (2018)
(Nexgen)

(71) 반도체 테라헤르츠 집적회로 기술 동향 및 이미징 응용 (Solid-State THz Integrated Circuit Technology Trend and Imaging Applications)
J. Yun, J. Kim, D. Kissinger, J.-S. Rieh
Electromagnetic Technology: The Proceedings of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engeering and Science (PKIEES) 29(5), 12 (2018)
(1THz)

(72) Design and Fabrication of a BiCMOS Dielectric Sensor for Viscosity Measurements: A Possible Solution for Early Detection of COPD
P.S. Zarrin, F.I. Jamal, S. Guha, J. Wessel, D. Kissinger, Ch. Wenger
Biosensors (MDPI) 8(3), 78 (2018)
(EXASENS)
The viscosity variation of sputum is a common symptom of the progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Since the hydration of the sputum defines its viscosity level, dielectric sensors could be used for the characterization of sputum samples collected from patients for early diagnosis of COPD. In this work, a CMOS-based dielectric sensor for the real-time monitoring of sputum viscosity was designed and fabricated. A proper packaging for the ESD-protection and short-circuit prevention of the sensor was developed. The performance evaluation results show that the radio frequency sensor is capable of measuring dielectric constant of biofluids with an accuracy of 4.17%. Integration of this sensor into a portable system will result in a hand-held device capable of measuring viscosity of sputum samples of COPD-patients for diagnostic purposes.

The building and the infrastructure of the IHP were funded by the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union, funds of the Federal Government and also funds of the Federal State of Brandenburg.