• Start
  • Research print
  • RF Circuits print
  • Publications print
  • Publications 2019

Publications 2019

since January 2019

(1) Design of Planar Waveguide Transition and Antenna Array Utilizing Low-Loss Substrate for 79 GHz Radar Applications
W. Ahmad, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/RWS.2019.8714561
This paper demonstrates planar designs of a microstrip-to-waveguide transition as well as a 4x1 patch antenna array at 79 GHz to investigate utilizing a new lowloss substrate material in radar applications. The planar transition enables direct surface-mounting of the standard waveguide flange without additional mechanical parts. It comprises of microstrip-to-substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) transition and SIW-WR12 transition. The patch antenna array is employed in a two-channel radar sensor where its radiation pattern is measured and verified.

(2) Planar Millimetre-Wave Waveguide Transition for Material Characterization at 79 GHz
W. Ahmad, T. Inoue, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng
Proc. 49th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2019), 356 (2019)
(radar4FAD)
This paper proposes a seamless planar millimetre-wave microstrip to waveguide transition at 79 GHz in order to measure and characterize the Nippon Pillar’s low-loss substrate material E260AS. A back-to-back structure of the proposed transition is fabricated and measured to verify the design. Then the transition is utilized to extract the dielectric constant of the material employing the microstrip rig resonator method.


(3) A Compcat Efficient D-Band Micromachined On-Chip Differential Patch Antenna for Radar Applications
W. Ahmad, M. Kucharski, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APS 2019), 2201 (2019)
(EMPHASE)
This paper presents a compact differential D-band on-chip patch antenna with high efficiency based on a localized baskside etching (LBE) technique on a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology for radar applications. The on-chip patch antenna is driven differentially to allow direct integration with circuits into single chip and offers a compact realization with high gain and directivity. The geometry of the on-chip antenna and the LBE air trenches are optimized to meet process reliability specifications and radiation performance simultaneously. A prototype antenna is integrated with radar transmitter and fabricated to validate the design where the radiation pattern is measured. The measured peak gain is 7 dBi at 160 GHz with 60 % simulated efficiency. The measured 1-dB gain bandwidth is 10 GHz.

(4) High Performance Asymmetric Coupled Line Balun at Sub-THz Frequency
A. Ali, J. Yun, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, F. Giannini, P. Colantonio
Applied Sciences 9(9), 1907 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/app9091907
In this paper, we report a high-performance balun with characteristics suitable for future
broadband sub-THz differential circuits. The idea of the balun is based on three asymmetric coupled lines, which enhance the odd mode capacitances to equalize the even/odd mode phase velocities. The inner line of the three asymmetric coupled lines is configured to form the open stub (λ/2), while the outer lines form short stubs (λ/4). To further reduce the phase imbalance, the short stubs in one of the arms of the balun are connected with vias and a lower metal layer. The balun is developed using the standard 130-nm SiGe BiCMOSback-end process and EM simulated with ADS momentum and Sonnet. The -10-dB reflection coefficient (S11) bandwidth of the balun is 136 GHz (88–224 GHz). It shows insertion loss (including RF pads) <1.5 dB, phase imbalance <7 degrees, and amplitude imbalance <1 dB at 94–177 GHz. Furthermore, a scaled-down version of the balun operates on the WR-6, WR-5, and WR-4 frequency bands without significant degradation in its performance. Such characteristics of the balun make it an ideal candidate for various broadband differential circuits.

(5) Single-Ended Power Amplier at 185 GHz with Output Power More Than 12 dBm
A. Ali, J. Yun, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, F. Giannini, P. Colantonio
Proc. 41st Photonics & Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS 2019), 48 (2019)

(6) Low Phase Imbalance D-Band Balun using 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Process Suitable for Broadband Differential Circuits
A. Ali, J. Yun, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, F. Giannini, P. Colantonio
Proc. 41st Photonics & Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS 2019), 2790 (2019)

(7) Sub-THz On-Chip Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Wideband Performance
A. Ali, J. Yun, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, F. Giannini, P. Colantonio
Proc. 22nd European Microwave Week (EuMW 2019), 912 (2019)
(radar4FAD)
This paper reviews recent works on on-chip antennas utilizing different integration concepts in Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technologies. Challenges as well as key design parameters of the on-chip antennas are addressed and a novel antenna integration concept based on a micromachining technique is described. The utilization of the on-chip antennas in different applications is also discussed. The integration of the on-chip antennas in the radar transceivers allows for a high miniaturization potential of the sensors. Compact high-resolution radar sensors at frequencies above 100 GHz become feasible and attractive for short range applications.

(8) A 18-dBm G-Band Power Amplifier using 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
A. Ali, P. Colantonio, F. Giannini, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng, J. Yun
Proc. 22nd European Microwave Week (EuMW 2019), 164 (2019)
(radar4FAD)
This paper reviews recent works on on-chip antennas utilizing different integration concepts in Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technologies. Challenges as well as key design parameters of the on-chip antennas are addressed and a novel antenna integration concept based on a micromachining technique is described. The utilization of the on-chip antennas in different applications is also discussed. The integration of the on-chip antennas in the radar transceivers allows for a high miniaturization potential of the sensors. Compact high-resolution radar sensors at frequencies above 100 GHz become feasible and attractive for short range applications.

(9) A Low Power, Low Chip Area, Two-Stage Current-Mode DAC Implemented in CMOS 130 nm Process
J. Dalecki, R. Dlugosz, T. Talaska, G. Fischer
Proc. 26th International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (MIXDES 2019), 151 (2019)

(10) A Continuous Wave Pseudo Random Noise Radar System using MIMO and Analog Correlation
J. Edler, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. 20th International Radar Symposium (IRS 2019), 1 (2019)
DOI: 10.23919/IRS.2019.8768148, (radar4FAD)
This paper describes a continuous wave pseudo random noise waveform radar system which combines the use of multiple input / multiple output (MIMO) techniques and analog correlation. The architecture utilizes a field programmable gate array to generate binary pseudo random noise sequences that drive modulators at both the transmit and receive side. In-phase/quadrature down-conversion mixers and low pass filters are employed to implement a sliding correlator yielding to a much lower intermediate frequency  bandwidth than required by digital correlation schemes. The radar system is scalable and utilizes several 60-GHz radar transceivers and a local oscillator realized in a Silicon-Germanium BiCMOS-technology. A 2-channel radar system was built and deployed in radar measurements using the digital beamforming-method to demonstrate the applicability of the system.
 

(11) A 13.5dBm Fully Integrated 200-to-255GHz Power Amplifier with a 4-Way Power Combiner in SiGe:C BiCMOS
M.H. Eissa, D. Kissinger
Proc. International Solid States Circuits Conference (ISSCC 2019), 82 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/ISSCC.2019.8662424, (WORTECS)
In this paper, we present a fully integrated power amplifier (PA) that combines the power of 4 differential PA units using a 4-way zero-degree combiner and a 4-way active splitter to feed the 4 PA units at 240GHz frequency band. It achieves measured saturated output power (Psat) and output 1-dB compression point (OP1dB) of 13.5 and 10.5dBm respectively. This is equivalent to a drain efficiency (ηd) and power added efficiency (PAE) at OP1dB of 3% and 1.47% respectively. A small signal gain (S21) of 15.5dB is measured across a 3-dB bandwidth of 55 GHz from 200 GHz to 255 GHz. These results demonstrates at least 2 times more saturated output power than the reported silicon-based power combined PAs above 200GHz with 4 times better drain efficiency and 7 times better PAE at OP1dB.

(12) Multiplexed Twin PLLs for Wide-Band FMCW Chirp Generation in 130-nm BiCMOS
A. Ergintav, F. Herzel, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 29(7), 483 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2019.2916702, (Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
We present a pair of fractional-N phase-locked loops (PLLs) followed by a high-frequency multiplexer (MUX) integrated in one chip. The PLL outputs are multiplexed during chirp generation so that the FMCW signal bandwidth is increased. The two PLLs are identical in design. The two VCOs are tunable from 28.4 to 30.8GHz and from 30.2 to 33.2GHz, respectively. Depending on the control voltage of the lower-band VCO, the MUX selects one of the two PLL outputs. This multiplexing automatically takes place in the course of chirp generation and almost doubles the sweep range of a single PLL. The phase noise measured at the MUX output is -110 dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from a 31.07GHz carrier. The chip occupies an area of 1.8×2.1mm2 and draws 90mA from a 3.3V supply and 118mA from another 2.7V supply. This array of PLLs offers a solution to increase resolution and precision of FMCW radar systems.

(13) A Study of Phase Noise and Frequency Error of a Fractional-N PLL in the Course of FMCW Chirp Generation
A. Ergintav, F. Herzel, G. Fischer, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I 66(5), 1670 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2018.2880881, (Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
This paper presents theoretical and experimental results on the phase noise spectrum and the rms frequency error of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) under frequencymodulated continuous-wave (FMCW) chirp generation. The phase noise spectrum under modulation is analytically calculated for a second-order charge pump (CP) PLL with a feedback divider ratio linearly changing over time. This is followed by an analysis of the steady-state rms frequency error of the output frequency after PLL settling is achieved during chirp generation. A fractional-N PLL with integrated frequency ramp generator is presented. Phase noise and jitter measurements on the PLL under modulation are performed at the output of the programmable feedback divider. The resulting low-frequency rms jitter is reduced by about 9 dB with doubling the charge pump current, and reduced by about 6 dB with halving the ramp slope. The rms frequency error under FMCW is measured at the modulated voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) output. The dependence of the frequency error on the loop filter capacitance for various ramp slopes is given. A frequency error of 112 kHz is achieved with a ramp slope of 1.28GHz/80μs at a carrier frequency of 62GHz. The noise measurements are in good agreement with the developed phase-noise model. A programmable loop filter capacitance is suggested to accommodate the static phase offset and the resulting frequency error to the ramp slope.

(14) F-Band Differential Microstrip Patch Antenna Array and Waveguide to Differential Microstrip Line Transition for FMCW Radar Sensor
R. Hasan, W.A. Ahmad, J.-H. Lu, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
IEEE Sensors Journal 19(15), 6486 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2909935, (radar4FAD)
This paper describes a differential microstrip patch antenna array and a rectangular waveguide to coupled differential microstrip line transition operating at 122 GHz. The antenna array is realized in series-fed topology/architecture and is very suitable for MIMO radar applications. This on-board antenna provides a high antenna gain and radiation efficiency at millimeter wave frequencies. The rectangular waveguide transition with low insertion loss offers the facilities to characterize the on-board antenna and can be also utilized in a radar system in combination with a horn antenna. The measured bandwidth of the antenna array is 7 GHz with a maximum gain of 12.98 dBi at 122 GHz. The waveguide transition has a bandwidth of 20 GHz at 10 dB return loss. Radar measurements were performed using radar sensors that were equipped with the developed antenna array as well as the waveguide transition in combination with horn antenna for comparison purposes. The radar measurement results with on-board antenna array show good performance for detecting the range of the target.

(15) Numerical Jitter Minimization for PLL-based FMCW Radar Systems
F. Herzel, S. Waldmann, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I 66(7), 2478 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2019.2893891

(16) An Integrated VCO With Frequency Tripler in SiGe BiCMOS with a 1-dB Bandwidth from 22GHz to 32GHz for Multiband 5G Wireless Networks
F. Herzel, G. Panic, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger
Proc. 12th German Microwave Conference (GeMIC 2019), 99 (2019)
DOI: 10.23919/GEMIC.2019.8698128, (fast spot)

(17) Low Insertion Loss D-Band SPDT Switches Using Reverse and Forward Saturated SiGe HBTs
A. Karakuzulu, A. Malignaggi, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/RWS.2019.8714362, (Taranto)
This paper presents two D-band SPDTs utilizing forward and reverse saturated SiGe HBTs. The SPDT switch designs are based on quarter-wave double shunt topology and state-of-the-art performance are achieved at D-band frequencies from 110 to 170 GHz. Measurement results of the reverse saturated SPDT switches show minimum insertion
loss of 2 dB (including pads losses) at 140 GHz and insertion loss better than 2.3 dB from 120 GHz to 170 GHz. The power consumption of both SPDTs is 3.04mW at 0.9V supply.

(18) An 18 dBm 155-180 GHz SiGe Power Amplifier Using a 4-Way T-Junction Combining Network
M. Kucharski, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. 45th European Solid-Sate Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC 2019), 333 (2019)
(EMPHASE)

(19) A Scalable 79-GHz Radar Platform Based on Single-Channel Transceivers
M. Kucharski, A. Ergintav, W.A. Ahmad, M. Krstic, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 67(9), 3882 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2019.2914104, (EMPHASE)
This paper presents a scalable E-band radar platform based on single-channel fully integrated transceivers (TRX) manufactured using 130-nm silicon–germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS technology. The TRX is suitable for flexible radar systems exploiting massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) techniques for multidimensional sensing. A fully integrated fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) comprising a 39.5-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator is used to generate wideband frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) chirp for E-band radar front ends. The TRX is equipped with a vector modulator (VM) for high-speed carrier modulation and beam-forming techniques. A single TRX achieves 19.2-dBm maximum output power and 27.5-dB total conversion gain with input-referred 1-dB compression point of −10 dBm. It consumes 220 mA from 3.3-V supply and occupies 3.96 mm2 silicon area. A two-channel radar platform based on full-custom TRXs and PLL was fabricated to demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution FMCW sensing. The radar enables up to 10-GHz frequency ramp generation in 74–84-GHz range, which results in 1.5-cm spatial resolution. Due to high output power, thus high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a ranging precision of 7.5 µm for a target at 2 m was achieved. The proposed architecture supports scalable multichannel applications for automotive FMCW using a single local oscillator (LO).

(20) A Low-Power D-Type Flipflop with Active Inductor and Forward Body Biasing Techniques in 40-nm CMOS
Y. Liang, C. Chye Boon, D. Kissinger, Y. Wang
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF.2019.8709121
A novel D-type flip-flop (DFF) and active inductive peaking powered by 0.7 V supply is proposed and implemented for low power communication. Forward bias (FB) technique is introduced for both the DFF and the active inductor in the clock buffer to effectively reduce the transistor threshold voltage, thus increasing the output swing along the data path. To mitigate the potential of junction breakdown, deep N-well NMOS is utilized for forward biasing. As the clock buffer is loaded by the active inductor, the output common-mode voltage can be increased by FB as well. The subsequent DFF can be hereby biased at class AB for fast data sampling. A pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) generator is implemented using the proposed DFF and the active inductor to verify the low power operation. Measured results show that the PRBS-4 can generates 8 Gb/s random data stream with 1.75 pJ/bit power efficiency under a 0.7 V power supply, achieving over 2X power efficiency improvement compared to the design operating at 1.2 V.

(21) Design and Analysis of D-Band On-Chip Modulator and Signal Source Based on Split-Ring Resonator
Y. Liang, C.C. Boon, C. Li, X.-L. Tang, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Yu
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 27(7), 1513 (2019)
(Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)
In an effort toward high-speed and low-power I/O data link in the future exascale data server, this paper presents a signal source and a modulator in the D-band. The split-ring resonator (SRR) structures are used to boost both the signal power and the extinction ratio (ER). The modulator manifests itself as a compact SRR whose magnetic resonance frequency can be modulated by high-speed data. Such a magnetic metamaterial achieves a significant reduction of radiation loss with high ER by stacking two auxiliary SRR unit cells with interleaved placement. The high-Q tank for oscillation is realized by a stacked SRR decorated with slow-wave transmission line (T-line) for electric field confinement. A four-way power-combined fundamental 80-GHz coupled-oscillator network is magnetically synchronized by the slow-wave T-line, which is frequency doubled to 160 GHz. Fabricated in the 65-nm CMOS process, the measured results show that: 1) the modulator achieves 3-dB insertion loss at the on-state with 43-dB isolation at the off-state, leading to a 40-dB ER at 125 GHz within an area of only 40 µm × 67 µm and 2) the signal source achieves 6.3% frequency tuning range (FTR) with 3.7-mW peak output power at 160 GHz within 0.053-mm 2 active area. It has a measured phase noise of −105 dBc/Hz at 10-MHz offset, 5.5% dc-to RF power efficiency, 70.1-mW/mm^2 power density, FOM of −171 dBc/Hz, and FOM T of −172.7 dBc/Hz.

(22) Processing and Integration of Graphene in a 200 mm Wafer Si Technology Environment
M. Lisker, M. Lukosius, M. Fraschke, J. Kitzmann, J. Dabrowski, O. Fursenko, P. Kulse, K. Schulz, A. Krüger, J. Drews, S. Schulze, D. Wolansky, A.M. Schubert, J. Katzer, D. Stolarek, I. Costina, A. Wolff, G. Dziallas, F. Coccetti, A. Mai
Microelectronic Engineering 205, 44 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2018.11.007, (Graphen)
We present insights into processes of cleaning, patterning, encapsulation, and contacting graphene in a 200mm wafer pilot line routinely used for the fabrication of integrated circuits in Si technologies. We demonstrate key process steps and discuss challenges and roadblocks which need to be overcome to enable integration of this material with Si technologies.

(23) Modular Data Link Layer Processing for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 22nd International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/DDECS.2019.8724657, (fast spot)

(24) Data Link Layer Processor for 100 Gbps Terahertz Wireless Communications in 28 nm CMOS Technology
L. Lopacinski, M. Marinkovic, G. Panic, M.H. Eissa, A. Hasani, K. KrishneGowda, R. Kraemer
IEEE Access 7, 44489 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2907156, (fast spot)
In this paper, we show our 165 Gbps data link layer processor for wireless communication in the terahertz band. The design utilizes interleaved Reed-Solomon codes with dedicated link adaptation, fragmentation, aggregation, and hybrid-automatic-repeat-request. The main advantage is the low chip area required to fabricate the processor, which is at least 2 times lower than the area of low-density parity-check decoders. Surprisingly, our solution loses only ~1 dB gain when compared to high-speed low-density parity-check decoders. Moreover, with only 2.38 pJ/bit of energy consumption at 0.8V, one of the best results in the class of comparable implementations has been achieved. Alongside, we show our vision of a complete 100 Gbps wireless transceiver, including radio frequency frontend and baseband processing. For the baseband realization, we propose parallel sequence spread spectrum and channel combining at the baseband level. Challenges to high-speed wireless transmission at the terahertz band are addressed as well. To the authors’ best knowledge, it is one of the first data link layer implementations that deal with a data rate of ≥100 Gbps.

(25) Data Link Layer Processor for 100 Gbps Terahertz Wireless Communications in 28 nm CMOS Technology
L. Lopacinski, M. Marinkovic, G. Panic, M.H. Eissa, A. Hasani, K. KrishneGowda, R. Kraemer
IEEE Access 7, 44489 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2907156, (DFG-SPP1655)
In this paper, we show our 165 Gbps data link layer processor for wireless communication in the terahertz band. The design utilizes interleaved Reed-Solomon codes with dedicated link adaptation, fragmentation, aggregation, and hybrid-automatic-repeat-request. The main advantage is the low chip area required to fabricate the processor, which is at least 2 times lower than the area of low-density parity-check decoders. Surprisingly, our solution loses only ~1 dB gain when compared to high-speed low-density parity-check decoders. Moreover, with only 2.38 pJ/bit of energy consumption at 0.8V, one of the best results in the class of comparable implementations has been achieved. Alongside, we show our vision of a complete 100 Gbps wireless transceiver, including radio frequency frontend and baseband processing. For the baseband realization, we propose parallel sequence spread spectrum and channel combining at the baseband level. Challenges to high-speed wireless transmission at the terahertz band are addressed as well. To the authors’ best knowledge, it is one of the first data link layer implementations that deal with a data rate of ≥100 Gbps.

(26) Modular Data Link Layer Processing for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 22nd International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/DDECS.2019.8724657, (DFG-SPP1655)

(27) Design of a Novel Microstrip Franklin Leaky-Wave Antenna Using the Eigenstate Approach
J.-H. Lu, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger, C.F. Jou, L.-K. Wu
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 67(7), 4484 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2911638, (radar4FAD)
This paper proposes an eigenimpedance-oriented design flow of asymmetric two port structure and demonstrates its application designing series fed patch resonators as the unit cell of a V-band Doppler leaky-wave antenna radar sensor. The results in this paper demonstrates that a series feed patch antenna array can be designed as a key component of a 61 GHz transceiver based Doppler radar sensor which can detect and distinguish obstacles at different angular positions.

(28) Experimental Evaluation of a 60 GHz Beamforming Solution with 32-Dipole Printed Array
N. Maletic, A. Malignaggi, B. Antonovici, J. Bozmarov, M. Elkhouly, J. Gutierrez Teran, V. Petrovic, E. Grass
Proc. 49th European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2019)
(5G-XHaul)
This paper presents a 60 GHz beamforming (BF) solution based on a 8-channel BF chip with an on-board dipole array antenna. A single BF chip has a Tx OP1dB of 1 dBm and an Rx IP1dB of -23 dBm per RF channel, occupying a silicon area of 27 mm2. The antenna array is based on eight in-line 4×1-dipole elements and it has a measured peak gain of 17 dBi across the 55-66 GHz band. The measurement results of the integrated solution show ±45° azimuth steering with an EIRP of 23 dBm.

(29) Wireless Communication Systems in the 240 GHz Band: Applications, Feasibility, and Challenges
N. Maletic, V. Sark, M.H. Eissa, J. Gutierrez Teran, E. Grass, O. Bouchet
Proc. 16th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS 2019), (2019)
(WORTECS)

(30) Towards CMOS Integrated Microfluidics using Dielectrophoretic Immobilization
H. Matbaechi Ettehad, R.K. Yadav, S. Guha, Ch. Wenger
Biosensors (MDPI) 9(2), 77 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/bios9020077, (BioBic)
Dielectrophoresis is a nondestructive and noninvasive method which is favorable for point-of-care medical diagnostic tests. In this work the feasibility of a CMOS integrated microfluidic device for detecting biocells using dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique was investigated by finite element simulation. The proposed detection system is used to immobilize particles on electrodes while flowing through the microfluidic channel based on the dielectrophoretic (DEP) force and sensing them using the same electrode structures. CMOS compatible interdigitated capacitor (IDC) arrays have been placed into the silicon microfluidic channel. In order to produce the dielectrophoretic force, a fixed frequency voltage small-signal within the range of 1 to maximum 5 V (peak-to-peak) is applied to the IDC. Generation of particles within the microfluidic channel were simulated with COMSOL Multiphysics. COMSOL simulations allowed IDC arrays to be optimized with respect to different cell sizes. Accordingly, in order to have a microsystem platform to be used for different size cells, effective internal and external properties such as geometrical parameters of IDC, voltage, frequency and fluid flow velocity were characterized.

(31) 64-GBd DP-Bipolar-8ASK Transmission over 120 km SSMF Employing a Monolithically Integrated Driver and MZM in 0.25-µm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
G.R. Mehrpoor, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, B. Wohlfeil, R. Elschner, D. Rafique, R. Emmerich, A. Dochhan, I. Lopez, P. Rito, D. Petousi, D. Kissinger, L. Zimmermann, C. Schubert, B. Schmauss, M. Eiselt, J.-P. Elbers
Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC 2019), Tu2A.5 (2019)
DOI: 10.1364/OFC.2019.Tu2A.5, (SPEED)
We demonstrate 64-GBd signal generation up to bipolar-8-ASK utilizing a single MZM, monolithically integrated with segmented drivers in SiGe. Using polarization multiplexing, 300- Gb/s net data rate transmission over 120 km SSMF is shown.

(32) Analysis of Human Breath by Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Spectroscopy
N. Rothbart, O. Holz, R. Koczulla, K. Schmalz, H.-W. Hübers
Biosensors (MDPI) 19(12), 2719 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/s19122719, (DFG-AGS)
Breath gas analysis is a promising tool for medical research and diagnosis. A particularly powerful technological approach is millimeter-wave/terahertz (mmW/THz) spectroscopy, because it is a very sensitive and highly selective technique. In addition, it offers the potential for compact and affordable sensing systems for wide use. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of a mmW/THz spectrometer for breath analysis. Samples from three volunteers and a sample from ambient air were analyzed with respect to 31 different molecular species. High-resolution 23 absorption spectra were measured by scanning two absorption lines of each species. Out of the 31, a total of 21 species was detected. The results demonstrate the potential of mmW/THz spectroscopy for breath analysis.

(33) Transmitters and Receivers in SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Sensitive Gas Spectroscopy at 222 - 270 GHz
K. Schmalz, N. Rothbart, M.H. Eissa, J. Borngräber, D. Kissinger, H.-W. Hübers
AIP Advances 9(1), 015213 (2019)
DOI: 10.1063/1.5066261, (DFG-AGS)

(34) 207-257 GHz Integrated Sensing Readout System with Transducer in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
D. Wang, J. Yun, M.H. Eissa, M. Kucharski, K. Schmalz, A. Malignaggi, Y. Wang, J. Borngräber, Y. Liang, H.J. Ng, Q.H. Le, D.K. Huynh, T. Kämpfe, K. Seidel, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2019), 496 (2019)
(DFG-THz LoC)

(35) RF-MEMS Based V-Band Impedance Tuner Driven by Integrated High-Voltage LDMOS Switch Matrix and Charge Pump
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF.2019.8709116, (MEMS Integration)
To demonstrate a fully integrated RF-MEMS based system including HV generation and switching circuitry, a V-Band (40 – 75 GHz) single-stub impedance tuner comprising four RF-MEMS switches, a 40V charge pump, and LDMOS based HV switches is developed in a 0.25μm SiGe-BiCMOS technology. The chip size of the designed impedance tuning circuit enables the integration into an on-wafer RF-probe used for noise parameter and load-pull measurements. With the embedded high-voltage generation and switching circuitry the wiring effort, which is necessary to control the integrated RF-MEMS based impedance tuning chip, can be drastically reduced. The operation of the on-chip high-voltage generation and switching circuitry is demonstrated by the measured S-parameters for various combinations of activated RF-MEMS switches. The four integrated RF-MEMS switches enable 16 impedance states in the frequency range between 40 GHz and 60 GHz.

(36) RF-MEMS Based V-Band Impedance Tuner Driven by Integrated High-Voltage LDMOS Switch Matrix and Charge Pump
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF.2019.8709116, (LDMOS)
To demonstrate a fully integrated RF-MEMS based system including HV generation and switching circuitry, a V-Band (40 – 75 GHz) single-stub impedance tuner comprising four RF-MEMS switches, a 40V charge pump, and LDMOS based HV switches is developed in a 0.25μm SiGe-BiCMOS technology. The chip size of the designed impedance tuning circuit enables the integration into an on-wafer RF-probe used for noise parameter and load-pull measurements. With the embedded high-voltage generation and switching circuitry the wiring effort, which is necessary to control the integrated RF-MEMS based impedance tuning chip, can be drastically reduced. The operation of the on-chip high-voltage generation and switching circuitry is demonstrated by the measured S-parameters for various combinations of activated RF-MEMS switches. The four integrated RF-MEMS switches enable 16 impedance states in the frequency range between 40 GHz and 60 GHz.

(37) A 60 GHz Ring Sensor with Differential Feed-Lines for Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biomedical Applications
R.K. Yadav, J. Wessel, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/RWS.2019.8714199, (Nexgen)

(38) Development of a Portable Dielectric Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Viscosity Variations and Its In-Vitro Evaluations using Saliva Samples of COPD Patients and Healthy Control
P.S. Zarrin, F.I. Jamal, N. Roeckendorf, Ch. Wenger
Healthcare (MDPI) 7(1), 11 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/healthcare7010011, (EXASENS)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a life-threatening lung disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Although majority of patients with objective COPD go undiagnosed until late stages of their disease, recent studies suggest that the regular screening of sputum viscosity could provide important information on the disease detection. Since the viscosity of sputum is mainly defined by its mucin-protein and water contents, dielectric biosensors can be used for detection of viscosity variations by screening changes in sputum's contents. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop a portable dielectric biosensor for rapid detection of viscosity changes and to evaluate its clinical performance in characterizing viscosity differences of saliva samples collected from COPD patients and Healthy Control (HC). For this purpose, a portable dielectric biosensor, capable of providing real-time measurements, was developed. The sensor performance for dielectric characterization of mediums with high water contents, such as saliva, was evaluated using isopropanol-water mixtures. Subsequently, saliva samples, collected from COPD patients and HC, were investigated for clinical assessments. The radio frequency biosensor provided high repeatability of 1.1% throughout experiments. High repeatability, ease of cleaning, low-cost, and portability of the biosensor made it a suitable technology for point-of-care applications.

The building and the infrastructure of the IHP were funded by the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union, funds of the Federal Government and also funds of the Federal State of Brandenburg.