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Publications 2019

since January 2019

(1) Large-Scale Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene on Polycrystalline Nickel Films: Effect of Annealing Conditions
F. Akhtar, J. Dabrowski, M. Lisker, P. Zaumseil, S. Schulze, A. Jouvray, P. Caban, A. Mai, Ch. Wenger, M. Lukosius
Thin Solid Films 690, 137565 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2019.137565, (Graphen)
In the present study, 8-in. silicon substrates, covered with thin (200 nm) polycrystalline nickel films have been employed for the growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition. In order to control the uniformity and coverage of the graphene, thin nickel layers were used due to their less deep grain boundary grooves and ability to store less carbon in comparison with thick nickel films (>500 nm). The preferential sites for the growth of multilayer graphene were influenced by the surface pretreatment of the polycrystalline nickel films at 1025 °C under different ambient conditions (hydrogen and vacuum). Significant differences in the surface morphologies were observed for the annealed nickel films. The growth of larger grains up to ~6 μm for the films annealed in hydrogen could be attributed to hydrogen interstitials. On the other hand, grains up to ~3 μm were extracted for the films annealed in vacuum. Graphene was grown after exposing the annealed Ni films to ethylene at 925 °C. The lower range (42–106 cm−1) of full width at half maxima of the 2D band as determined by Raman spectroscopy was obtained for the films annealed in hydrogen as compared to the ones annealed in vacuum (51–128 cm−1), indicating that the thickness uniformity of graphene was strongly influenced by the surface modifications of nickel films.

(2) Use of Silicon Photonics Wavelength Multiplexing Techniques for Fast Parallel Readout in High Energy Physics
G. Alimonti, R. Ammendola, A. Andreazza, D. Badoni, V. Bonaiuto, M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, A. Mai, G. Paoluzzi, P. Prosposito, A. Salamon, G. Salina, E. Santovetti, F. Sargeni, A. Satta, S. Schrader, P. Steglich
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 936, 601 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.09.088
Optical wavelength multiplexing is a widely used technique in Information and Communication Technology to increase maximum data transmission bandwidth on a single optical fiber. We propose wavelength multiplexing/ demultiplexing using optical Ring Resonators (RR) on a silicon photonics circuit for fast timing highly segmented detectors readout. A cascaded microrings, sharing a common bus waveguide with individual drop waveguides, can be used to encode the readout of an array of detectors on a single optical fiber. The device works using a silicon strip-waveguide coupled to a set of N high Q-factor RR filters driven by a different ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) front-end electronics.

(3) Ultrafast Carrier Recombination in Highly N-Doped Ge-on-Si Films
J. Allerbeck, A.J. Herbst, Y. Yamamoto, G. Capellini, M. Virgilio, D. Brida
Applied Physics Letters 114(24), 241104 (2019)
DOI: 10.1063/1.5088012, (Ge Laser)

(4) Design and Implementation of Injection Locked Oscillator Biosensors
M. Babay, C. Dalmay, B. Barelaud, E.C. Durmaz, C. Baristiran Kaynak, M. Kaynak, D. Cordeau, A. Pothier
Proc. 49th European Microwave Week (EuMW 2019), 168 (2019)

(5) Development and Mechanical Modeling of Si1-xGex/Si MQW Based Uncooled Microbolometers in a 130 nm BiCMOS
C. Baristiran Kaynak, A. Göritz, Y. Yamamoto, M. Wietstruck, M. Stocchi, K.E. Unal, M.B. Ozdemir, Y. Ozsoy, Y. Gurbuz, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SIRF 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF.2019.8709124, (IHP-Sabanci Joint Lab)

(6) Spectroscopic Reflectometry for Characterization of Through Silicon Via Profile of Bosch Etching Process
J. Bauer, O. Fursenko, St. Marschmeyer, F. Heinrich, F. Villasmunta, C. Villringer, C. Zesch, S. Schrader
Proc. 8th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (ICSE 2019), abstr. book 297 (2019)
DOI: 10.1116

(7) Contactless Parametric Characterization of Bandgap Engineering in FinFETs using Spectral Photon Emission
A. Beyreuther, I. Vogt, N. Herfurth, T. Nakamura, G.G. Fischer, B. Motamedi, C. Boit
Microelectronics Reliability 92, 143 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2018.11.008
In the last decade it has become increasingly popular to use germanium enriched silicon in modern field effect transistors (FET) due to the higher intrinsic mobility of both holes and electrons in SiGe as compared to Si. Whether used in the source/drain region (S/D) as compressive stressor, which is an efficient mobility booster on Si channel devices, or as channel material, the SiGe increases channel carrier mobility and thus enhancing device performance. Because the germanium content modifies the effective bandgap energy EG, this material characteristic is an important technology performance parameter. The bandgap energy can be determined in an LED-like operation of electronic devices, requiring forward biased p-n junctions. P-n junctions in FETs are source or drain to body diodes, usually grounded or reversely biased. This investigation applies a bias to the body that can trigger parasitic forward operation of the source/drain to body p-n junction in any FET. Spectral photon emission (SPE) is used here as a non-destructive method to characterize engineered bandgaps in operative transistor devices, while the device remains fully functional.
Before applying the presented technique to a p-type FinFET device, it is put to the proof by verifying the nominal silicon bandgap on an (unstrained) 120nm technology FET. Subsequently the characterization capability for bandgap engineering is then successfully demonstrated on a SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). In a final step, the bandgap energy EG of a 14/16nm p-type FinFET was determined to be 0.84eV, which corresponds to a Si0.7Ge0.3 mixture. The presented characterization technique is a contactless fault isolation method that allows for quantitative local investigation of engineered bandgaps in p-type FinFETs.

(8) Thin Film and Mulilayers
M. Birkholz
International Tables for Crystallography, Volume H: Powder diffraction, 1st Edition, Editors: C.J. Gilmore, J.A. Kaduk, H. Schenk, Chapter 5.4. Thin Films and Multilayers, Wiley, 581 (2019) 
DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000969

(9) Comparative Study of Nano-Slot Silicon Waveguides Covered by Dye Doped and Undoped Polymer Cladding
S. Bondarenko, C. Villringer, P. Steglich
Applied Sciences 9(1), 89 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/app9010089, (HOPBIT)

(10) Ultra-Low Noise Amplifier for X-Band SiGe BiCMOS Phased Array Applications
C. Caliskan, I. Kalyoncu, M. Yazici, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II 66(9), 1507 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2019.2891133, (IHP-Sabanci Joint Lab)
This brief presents, a low noise amplifier (LNA) with sub-1dB noise figure (NF) at X-Band. Different than generally known noise-and-power match technique, the presented LNA is designed by considering impedance between the base-collector terminals of an HBT in common-emitter configuration. The presented amplifier stage can achieve sub-1 dB NF performance with ∼10 dB gain. The LNA dissipates 19.8 mW of dc power and has 0.77 dB NF while occupying 0.4 mm2. It succeeds 1.5 dBm of input-referred compression point. To the best of authors’ knowledge, the presented work achieves the best NF performance in the literature of any LNA that utilizes SiGe technology.

(11) Finite-Element Modelling of Stress Induced Wafer Warpage for a Full BiCMOS Process
Z. Cao, A. Göritz, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Trusch, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF.2019.8709125, (Bend-IT)
A finite element method (FEM) wafer scale model considering all the process details, e.g. metal patterning, via etching, etc., is built for a state-of-the-art 0.13-µm SiGe BiCMOS fully processed 8-inch wafer. Associated layer residual stress and wafer warpage are extracted and compared with hand calculation and experimental results. The comparison results show that the wafer warpage predicted by FEM model demonstrates only about 10 µm maximum deviation over an 80 µm-bowed wafer. An accurate stress model for an 8-inch wafer including full BiCMOS process is successfully developed and validated.

(12) Field-Modulated Graphene/Silicon Schottky Diodes Fabricated in a fully CMOS-Compatible Process Line
C.A. Chavarin, J. Dabrowski, G. Luongo, M. Lisker, A. Jouvray, P. Caban, A. Di Bartolomeo, Ch. Wenger, A. Mai, M. Lukosius
Proc. International Conference Nano-M&D “Properties, Fabrication and Applications of Nano-Materials and Nano-Devices” (Nano-M&D 2019), 63 (2019)

(13) Physical, Small-Signal and Pulsed Thermal Impedance Characterization of Multi-Fingers SiGe HBTs Close to the SOA Edges
M. Couret, G.G.Fischer, I. Garcia-Lopez, M. De Matos, F. Marc, C. Maneux
Proc. 49th IEEE European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC 2019), 154 (2019)

(14) Optical Phase Conjugation in a Silicon Waveguide with Lateral p-i-n Diode for Nonlinearity Compensation
F. Da Ros, A. Gajda, E.P. da Silva, A. Peczek, A. Mai, K. Petermann, E. Liebig, L. Zimmermann, L.K. Oxenlowe, M. Galili
IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 37(2), 323 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2018.2873684, (SOPA ZI 1283/3-1)
In-line optical phase conjugation is a well-known technique to enhance the received signal quality through nonlinearity compensation. Being able to implement the conjugation in cm-scale highly nonlinear devices, which can be integrated on a silicon chip, could potentially lead to several benefits in terms of small footprint and cointegration with linear signal processing functionalities, as well as lower power consumption. Here, we focus on silicon waveguides to implement the optical phase conjugation through four-wave mixing. The challenges in terms of conversion efficiency imposed by the presence of nonlinear loss are tackled by using a lateral p-i-n diode along the waveguide. When the diode is reverse biased, the conversion efficiency can be effectively enhanced by the decrease in free-carrier absorption. Low-penalty conversion can therefore be achieved for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) signals and the high quality of the generated idlers is critical in demonstrating a 1-dB Q-factor improvement through optical phase conjugation in a 5-WDM channel 16-QAM transmission system after 644 km of dispersion-compensated transmission.

(15) Automated Extraction of Silicon Dioxide Thermal Conductivity Values Based on Electro-Thermal Simulations
A. Datsuk, F. Korndörfer, M. Kaynak, Z. Cao, K. Dhawan, V. Timoshenkov
Proc. IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus 2019), 1909 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/eiconrus.2019.8657035, (Design Kit)
Abstract — An approach to extract the silicon dioxide thermal conductivity values is presented. A variety of metal resistor test structures are produced using a 0.25 um SiGe BiCMOS technology. Based on the measured temperature rise values an automated extraction method to optimize the thermal conductivity of silicon dioxide is developed. Electrical and thermal co-simulations were performed for the optimization using the aforementioned test structures. The optimized thermal conductivity values were added to the material stack-up file and embedded in the process design kit. The updated material stack-up file allows designers to perform accurate computation of the metal structures and flip-chips. The maximum deviation of 8% between the electro-thermal simulations and the measurements is achieved.

(16) Nano-Imaging of Biological Cells using High Refractive Index Barium Titanate Glass (BTG) Microspheres on Lab on Chip Platform
R. Dhama, N.M. Karim, C. Palego, C. Baristiran Kaynak, E C Durmaz, M. Kaynak, Z. Wang
Proc. Biomedical Applications of Electromagnetic Energy Workshop (2019)

(17) A BaTiO3-Based Electro-Optic Pockels Modulator Monolithically Integrated on an Advanced Silicon Photonics Platform
F. Eltes, Ch. Mai, D. Caimi, M. Kroh, Y. Popoff, G. Winzer, D. Petousi, St. Lischke, J.E. Ortmann, L. Czornomaz, L. Zimmermann, J. Fompeyrine, S. Abel
IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 37(5), 1456 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2019.2893500, (PHRESCO)
To develop a new generation of high-speed photonic modulators on silicon-technology-based photonics, new materials with large Pockels coefficients have been transferred to silicon substrates. Previous approaches focus on realizing stand-alone devices on dedicated silicon substrates, incompatible with the fabrication process in silicon foundries. In this work, we demonstrate monolithic integration of electro-optic modulators based on the Pockels effect in barium titanate (BTO) thin films into the back-end-of-line of a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform. Molecular wafer bonding allows fully PIC-compatible integration of BTO-based devices and is, as shown, scalable to 200 mm wafers. The PIC-integrated BTO Mach–Zehnder modulators outperform conventional Si photonic modulators in modulation efficiency, losses, and static tuning power. The devices show excellent VπL (0.2 Vcm) and VπLα (1.3 VdB), work at high speed (25 Gbps), and can be tuned at low-static power consumption (100 nW). Our concept demonstrates the possibility of monolithic integration of Pockels-based electro-optic modulators in advanced silicon photonic platforms.

(18) Diagnostic of Graphene on 200 mm Ge(100)/Si(100) Wafers by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
O. Fursenko, M. Lukosius, J. Bauer, C. Villringer, M. Fraschke, M. Lisker, A. Mai
Proc. 8th International Conference on Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (ICSE 2019), abstr. book 178 (2019)

(19) Miniature Switchable Millimeter-Wave BiCMOS Low-Noise Amplifier at 120/140 GHz Using an HBT Switch
J. Heredia, M. Ribó, L. Pradell, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, M. Wietstruck, Ch. Wipf, M. Kaynak
Micromachines 10(10), 00632 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/mi10100632
A 120–140 GHz frequency-switchable, very compact low-noise amplifier (LNA) fabricated
in a 0.13 m SiGe:C BiCMOS technology is proposed. A single radio-frequency (RF) switch composed of three parallel hetero junction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in a common-collector configuration and a multimodal three-line microstrip structure in the input matching network are used to obtain a LNA chip of miniaturized size. A systematic design procedure is applied to obtain a perfectly balanced gain and noise figure in both frequency states (120 GHz and 140 GHz). The measured gain and noise figure are 14.2/14.2 dB and 8.2/8.2 dB at 120/140 GHz respectively, in very good agreement with circuit/electromagnetic co-simulations. The LNA chip and core areas are 0.197 mm2 and 0.091 mm2, respectively, which supposes an area reduction of 23.4% and 15.2% compared to other LNAs reported in this frequency band. The experimental results validate the design procedure and its  analysis.

(20) A 125–143-GHz Frequency-Reconfigurable BiCMOS Compact LNA Using a Single RF-MEMS Switch
J. Heredia, M. Ribó, L. Pradell, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, M. Wietstruck, Ch. Wipf, M. Kaynak
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 29(5), 339 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2019.2906595
In this letter, a 125–143-GHz frequencyreconfigurable BiCMOS compact low-noise amplifier (LNA) is presented for the first time. It consists of two cascode stages and was fabricated using a 0.13-μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process, which integrates RF-MEMS switches. A systematic general design procedure to obtain a balanced gain and noise figure in both frequency states is proposed. The LNA size is minimized by using only one RF-MEMS switch to select the frequency band and a multimodal three-line microstrip structure in the input matching network. The measured gain and noise figure are 18.2/16.1 and 7/7.7 dB at 125/143 GHz. The power consumption is 36.8 mW. The measured results are in good agreement with simulations.

(21) A Temperature Controller IC for Maximizing Si Micro-Ring Modulator Optical-Modulation-Amplitude
M.-H. Kim, L. Zimmermann, W.-Y. Choi
IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 37(4), 1200 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2018.2889899, (Photonics)
We present a custom-designed integrated circuit (IC) implemented in 0.25-μm BiCMOS technology that can automatically control the Si micro-ring modulator (MRM) temperature for optimal modulation characteristics. The IC monitors the optical modulation amplitude (OMA) of a Si MRM and provides the optimal heater setting for the maximum OMA. The IC consists of trans-impedance amplifier, power detector, track-and-hold circuit, comparator, digital-to analog converter, and digital controller, all of which are integrated in a single chip. We demonstrate that, with this IC, a Si MRM can provide the maximum OMA for 25-Gb/s operation despite changes in temperature and input optical power.

(22) On the Impact of Strained PECVD Nitride Layers on Oxide Precipitate Nucleation in Silicon
G. Kissinger, D. Kot, I. Costina, M. Lisker
ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 8(9), N125 (2019)
(Future Silicon Wafers)
PECVD nitride layers with different layer stress ranging from about 315 MPa to -1735 MPa were deposited on silicon wafers with similar concentration of interstitial oxygen. After a thermal treatment consisting of nucleation at 650 °C for 4 h or 8 h followed annealing 780 °C 3 h + 1000 °C 16 h in nitrogen, the profiles of the oxide precipitate density were investigated. The binding states of hydrogen in the layers was investigated by FTIR. There is a clear effect of the layer stress on oxide precipitate nucleation. The higher the compressive layer stress is the higher is a BMD peak below the front surface. If the nitride layer is removed after the nucleation anneal the BMD peak below the front surface becomes lower. It is possible to model the BMD peak below the surface by vacancy in-diffusion from the silicon/nitride interface. With increasing duration of the nucleation anneal the vacancy injection from the silicon/nitride interface decreases and with increasing compressive layer stress it increases.

(23) On the Impact of Strained PECVD Oxide Layers on Oxide Precipitation in Silicon
G. Kissinger, D. Kot, M. Lisker, A. Sattler
ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 8(4), N79 (2019)
DOI: 10.1149/2.0141904jss, (Future Silicon Wafers)
PECVD oxide layers with different layer stress ranging from about 1 MPa to 305 MPa were deposited on silicon wafers with similar concentration of interstitial oxygen. After a thermal treatment consisting of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and furnace annealing 780 °C 3 h + 1000 °C 16 h in nitrogen the profiles of the oxide precipitate density were investigated. Supersaturations of self-interstitials as function of layer stress were determined by adjusting a modelling results to measured depth profiles of bulk microdefects. The self-interstitial supersaturation generated by RTA at 1250 °C and 1175 °C at the silicon/oxide interface is increasing linearly with increasing layer stress. Values for self-interstitial supersaturation determined on deposited oxide layers after RTA at 1250 °C and 1175 °C are very similar to values published for RTO by Sudo et al. An RTA at 1175°C with a PECVD oxide on top of the wafer is a method to effectively suppress oxygen precipitation in silicon wafers. Nucleation anneals carried out at 650 °C for 4 h and 8 h did not show any effect of PECVD oxide layers on oxide precipitate nucleation.

(24) Comparison of Fumed Silica- and Colloidal Silica Slurry for CMP
A. Krüger, M. Lisker
Proc. International Conference on Planarization/CMP Technology (ICPT 2019), 114 (2019)

(25) Polishing of Polysilicon with Highly Diluted Silica Slurry by using SiN Stop Layer
A. Krüger, M. Lisker
Proc. International Conference on Planarization/CMP Technology (ICPT 2019), 116 (2019)

(26) Dual Platform Stepper/Scanner-Based Overlay Evaluation Method
P. Kulse, S. Jätzlau, K. Schulz, M. Wietstruck
Proc. 35th European Mask and Lithography Conference (EMLC 2019), 111770F (2019)
DOI: 10.1117/12.2535629

(27) Processing and Integration of Graphene in a 200 mm Wafer Si Technology Environment
M. Lisker, M. Lukosius, M. Fraschke, J. Kitzmann, J. Dabrowski, O. Fursenko, P. Kulse, K. Schulz, A. Krüger, J. Drews, S. Schulze, D. Wolansky, A.M. Schubert, J. Katzer, D. Stolarek, I. Costina, A. Wolff, G. Dziallas, F. Coccetti, A. Mai
Microelectronic Engineering 205, 44 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2018.11.007, (Graphen)
We present insights into processes of cleaning, patterning, encapsulation, and contacting graphene in a 200mm wafer pilot line routinely used for the fabrication of integrated circuits in Si technologies. We demonstrate key process steps and discuss challenges and roadblocks which need to be overcome to enable integration of this material with Si technologies.

(28) Light Effective Hole Mass in Undoped Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells
M. Lodari, A. Tosato, D. Sabbagh, M.A. Schubert, G. Capellini, A. Sammak, M. Veldhorst, G. Scappucci
Physical Review B 100(4), 041304(R) (2019)
We report density-dependent effective hole mass measurements in undoped germanium quantum wells. We are able to span a large range of densities (2.0 - 11 x 1011 cm-2) in top-gated field effect transistors by positioning the strained buried Ge channel at different depths of 12 and 44 nm from the surface. From the thermal damping of the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, we measure a light mass of 0.061me at a density of 2.2 x 1011 cm-2. We confirm the theoretically predicted dependence of increasing mass with density and by extrapolation we find an effective mass of ∼ 0.05me at zero density, the lightest effective mass for a planar platform that demonstrated spin qubits in quantum dots.

(29) Reliability of CMOS Integrated Memristive HfO2 Arrays with Respect to Neuromorphic Computing
M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, Ch. Wenger, F. Zahari, H. Kohlstedt, A. Grossi, C. Zambelli, P. Olivo, M. Ziegler
Proc. IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/IRPS.2019.8720552, (NeuroMem)

(30) Photonic Thermal Sensor Integration Towards Electronic-Photonic-IC Technologies
A. Mai, P. Steglich, Ch. Mai, S. Bondarenko
Proc. 49th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC 2019), 254 (2019)

(31) Electronic-Photonic Wafer-Level Technologies for Fast Prototyping and Application Specific Solutions
A. Mai, P. Steglich, Ch. Mai, St. Simon, R. Scholz
Proc. 41st PhotonIcs & Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS 2019), 123 (2019)

(32) UHF-Dielectrophoresis Crossover Frequency as a New Marker for Discrimination of Glioblastoma Undifferentiated Cells
R. Manczak, S. Saada, T. Provent, C. Dalmay, B, Bessette, G. Begaud, S. Battu, P. Blondy, M.-O. Jauberteau, C. Baristiran Kaynak, M. Kaynak, C. Palego, F. Lallloue, A. Pothier
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF, and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology 3(3),191 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/JERM.2019.2895539, (SUMCASTEC)
This paper introduces the first results of dielectric spectroscopy characterization of glioblastoma cells, measuring their crossover frequencies in the ultra-high-frequency range (above 50 MHz) by dielectrophoresis (DEP) techniques. Experiments were performed on two glioblastoma lines U87-MG and LN18 that were cultured following different conditions, in order to achieve different phenotypic profiles.We demonstrate here that the presented DEP electrokinetic method can be used to discriminate the undifferentiated from the differentiated cells. In this study, microfluidic lab-on-chip systems implemented on bipolarcomplementary oxide semiconductor technology are used allowing single cell handling and analysis. Based on the characterizations of their own intracellular features, both the selected glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines cultured in distinct culture conditions have shown clear differences of DEP crossover frequency signatures compared to the differentiated cells cultured in a normal medium. These results support the concept and validate the efficiency for cell characterization in glioblastoma pathology.

(33) 64-GBd DP-Bipolar-8ASK Transmission over 120 km SSMF Employing a Monolithically Integrated Driver and MZM in 0.25-µm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
G.R. Mehrpoor, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, B. Wohlfeil, R. Elschner, D. Rafique, R. Emmerich, A. Dochhan, I. Lopez, P. Rito, D. Petousi, D. Kissinger, L. Zimmermann, C. Schubert, B. Schmauss, M. Eiselt, J.-P. Elbers
Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC 2019), Tu2A.5 (2019)
DOI: 10.1364/OFC.2019.Tu2A.5, (SPEED)
We demonstrate 64-GBd signal generation up to bipolar-8-ASK utilizing a single MZM, monolithically integrated with segmented drivers in SiGe. Using polarization multiplexing, 300- Gb/s net data rate transmission over 120 km SSMF is shown.

(34) Multilevel HfO2-Based RRAM Devices for Low-Power Neuromorphic Networks
V. Milo, C. Zambelli, P. Olivo, E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, O.G. Ossorio, Ch. Wenger, D. Ielmini
APL Materials 7(8), 081120 (2019)
DOI: 10.1063/1.5108650, (NeuroMem)
Training and recognition with neural networks generally require high throughput, high energy efficiency, and scalable circuits to enable artificial intelligence tasks to be operated at the edge, i.e., in battery-powered portable devices and other limited-energy environments. In this scenario, scalable resistive memories have been proposed as artificial synapses thanks to their scalability, reconfigurability, and high-energy efficiency, and thanks to the ability to perform analog computation by physical laws in hardware. In this work, we study the material, device, and architecture aspects of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices for implementing a 2-layer neural network for pattern recognition. First, various RRAM processes are screened in view of the device window, analog storage, and reliability. Then, synaptic weights are stored with 5-level precision in a 4 kbit array of RRAM devices to classify the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) dataset. Finally, classification performance of a 2-layer neural network is tested before and after an annealing experiment by using experimental values of conductance stored into the array, and a simulation-based analysis of inference accuracy for arrays of increasing size is presented. Our work supports material-based development of RRAM synapses for novel neural networks with high accuracy and low-power consumption.

(35) Advanced Coherent X-Ray Diffraction and Electron Microscopy of Individual InP Nanocrystals on Si Nanotips for III-V-on-Si Electronics and Optoelectronics
G. Niu, S.J. Leake, O. Skibitzki, T. Niermann, J. Carnis, F. Kießling, F. Hatami, E.H. Hussein, M.A. Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, W.T. Masselink, W. Ren, Z.-G. Ye, M. Lehmann, T. Schülli, T. Schroeder, M.-I. Richard
Physical Review Applied 11(6), 064046 (2019)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064046

(36) Operando Diagnostic Detection of Interfacial Oxygen “Breathing” of Resistive Random Access Memory by Bulk-Sensitive Hard X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
G. Niu, P. Calka, P. Huang, S.U. Sharath, S. Petzold, A. Gloskovskii, K. Fröhlich, Y. Zhao, J. Kang, M.A. Schubert, F. Bärwolf, W. Ren, Z.-G. Ye, E. Perez, Ch. Wenger, L. Alff, T. Schoeder
Materials Research Letters 7(3), 117 (2019)
DOI: 10.1080/21663831.2018.1561535

(37) Test Beam Measurement of the First Prototype of the Fast Silicon Pixel Monolithic Detector for the TT-PET Project
L. Paolozzi, Y. Bandi, M. Benoit, R. Cardarelli, S. Debieux, D. Forshaw, D. Hayakawa, G. Iacobucci, M. Kaynak, A. Miucci, M. Nessi, O. Ratib, E. Ripiccini, H. Rücker, P. Valerio, M. Weber
Journal of Instrumentation 14(2), P02009 (2019)
DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/13/04/P04015
The TT-PET collaboration is developing a PET scanner for small animals with 30 ps time-of flight resolution and sub-millimetre 3D detection granularity. The sensitive element of the scanner is a monolithic silicon pixel detector based on state-of-the-art SiGe BiCMOS technology. The first ASIC prototype for the TT-PET was produced and tested in the laboratory and with minimum ionizing particles. The electronics exhibit an equivalent noise charge below 600 e- RMS and a pulse rise time of less than 2 ns, in accordance with the simulations. The pixels with a capacitance of 0:8 pF were measured to have a detection efficiency greater than 99% and, although in the absence of the post-processing, a time resolution of approximately 200 ps.

(38) Towards Reliable Multi-Level Operation in RRAM Arrays: Improving Post-Algorithm Instability and Assessing Endurance/Data Retention
E. Perez, C. Zambelli, M.K. Mahadevaiah, P. Olivo, Ch. Wenger
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society 7, 740 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/JEDS.2019.2931769, (NeuroMem)
Achieving a reliable multi-level operation in RRAM arrays is currently a challenging task due to several threats like the post-algorithm instability occurring after the levels placement, the limited endurance, and the poor data retention capabilities at high temperature. In this work we introduced a multi-level variation of the state-of-the-art incremental step pulse with verify algorithm (M-ISPVA) to improve the instability of the LRS levels. This algorithm introduces for the first time the proper combination of current compliance control and program/verify
paradigms. The validation of the algorithm for forming and set operations has been performed on 4-kbit RRAM arrays. In addition, we assessed the endurance and the high temperature multi-level retention capabilities after the algorithm application proving a 1k switching cycles stability and a 10 years retention target with temperatures below 100 oC.

(39) Characterization of the Interface-Driven 1st Reset Operation in HfO2-based 1T1R RRAM Devices
E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, C. Zambelli, P. Olivo, Ch. Wenger
Solid State Electronics 159, 51 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2019.03.054, (NeuroMem)
In this work, the increase on the lament conductivity during the 1st Reset operation, by using the incremental step pulse with verify algorithm, is investigated in HfO2-based 1T1R RRAM devices. A new approach is proposed in order to explain the increase of conductivity by highlighting the crucial roles played by both metal-oxide interfaces. The top metal-oxide interface (HfO2-x/TixOy) plays a role in the forming operation by creating a strong gradient of oxygen vacancies in the hafnium oxide layer. The bottom metal-oxide interface (TixOyNz/HfO2-x) also creates oxygen vacancies, which strengthen the conductive lament tip near to this interface at the beginning of the 1st Reset, leading to the reported conductivity increase. After the 1st Reset operation the conductive lament stabilizes at the bottom interface suppressing this behavior in the subsequent reset operations. By modifying the programming parameters and the temperature, it was con rmed a constant current increase of about 9 μA during the 1st Reset regardless the operation conditions imposed.

(40) Endoscopic Orientation by Multimodal Data Fusion
S. Pulwer, R. Fiebelkorn, Ch. Zesch, P. Steglich, C. Villringer, F. Villasmunta, E. Gedat, J. Handrich, S. Schrader, R. Vandenhouten
Proc. SPIE MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XVIII (2019) 10931, 1093114 (2019)
DOI: 10.1117/12.2508470
For the further improved feasibility of endoscopic inspection processes, it is crucial for the user to locate the endoscope inside the machine to be inspected. Therefore we developed a system that provide online information about the position, orientation and viewing direction of the endoscope. This will lead to an automated process that simplifies and optimizes the inspection or manufacturing process. The setup is based on an industrial endoscope with a camera, various MEMS and multimodal data fusion. The software contains algorithms like feature and geometric structure recognition. To minimize the error function and noise, it is necessary to implement mathematical compensation algorithm and make use of Kalman-Filter or Particle-Filter. Based on the calculated results, a visualization of the position and location of the endoscope inside a 3D-CAD model of the inspected machine will be displayed. Test objects (self-defined 3D printed objects, turbine blisk and transmission) were used for tracking the distal end of the endoscope. With these data we could generate a 3D point cloud in real time. Therefore we registered the optical and photometrical characteristics of the system and reconstructed the movement of the endoscope by feature detection and tracking in combination with SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping). Using the information of the 3D-CAD model of the object and the registered point cloud in combination we were able to improve the stability of the algorithm.

(41) Shallow and Undoped Germanium Quantum Wells: A Playground for Spin and Hybrid Quantum Technology
A. Sammak, D. Sabbagh, N.W. Hendrickx, M. Lodari, B.P. Wuetz, A. Tosato, L. Yeoh, M. Bollani, M. Virgilio, M.A. Schubert, P. Zaumseil, G. Capellini, M. Veldhorst, G. Scappucci
Advanced Functional Materials 29(14), 1807613 (2019)
DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201807613

(42) Synthesis of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons on Germanium-on-Silicon
V. Saraswat, Y. Yamamoto, H.J. Kim, R.M. Jacobberger, K.R. Jinkins, A.J. Way, N.P. Guisinger, M.S. Arnold
ACS Journal of Physical Chemistry C 123(30), 18445 (2019)

(43) Two-Element Antenna-Acitve Phase Shifter Packaging at 77 GHz
M. Seyyedesfahlan, E. Özturk, M. Kaynak, I. Tekin, A.K. Skrivervik
Proc. 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2019), (2019)
(IHP-Sabanci Joint Lab)

(44) Two-Element Antenna-Acitve Phase Shifter Packaging at 77 GHz
M. Seyyedesfahlan, E. Özturk, M. Kaynak, I. Tekin, A.K. Skrivervik
Proc. 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2019), (2019)

(45) Radiation Tolerant RF-LDMOS Transistors, Integrated into a 0.25µm SiGe-BICMOS Technology
R. Sorge, J. Schmidt, F. Reimer, Ch. Wipf, F. Korndörfer, R. Pliquett, R. Barth
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 924, 166 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.07.075, (strahlungsfeste Schaltkeise (Radiation))

(46) On-Chip Dispersion Measurement of the Quadratic Electro-Optic Effect in Nonlinear Optical Polymers using a Photonic Integrated Circuit Technology
P. Steglich, C. Villringer, B. Dietzel, Ch. Mai, S. Schrader, M. Casalboni, A. Mai
IEEE Photonics Journal 11(3), 4900510 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2019.2917665, (HOPBIT)
A novel method to determine the dispersion of the quadratic electro-optic effect in nonlinear optical dyes by using a silicon-on-insulator micro-ring resonator is presented. The micro-ring consists of a silicon slot waveguide enabling large electric field strength at low voltages. The dispersion of a linear conjugated dye is determined by using a two-level model for the off-resonant spectral region. Exemplary, we measure the dispersion of the nonlinear optical dye disperse red 1 (DR1) doped in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix for the telecommunication wavelength band around 1550 nm (optical C-band).

(47) Functionalized Materials for Integrated Photonics: Hybrid Integration of Organic Materials in Silicon-Based Photonic Integrated Circuits for Advanced Optical Modulators and Light-Sources
P. Steglich, Ch. Mai, S. Bondarenko, C. Villringer, S. Pulwer, C. Zesch, B. Dietzel, S. Schrader, F. Vitale, F. De Matteis, M. Casalboni, A. Mai
Proc. 41st Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS 2019), 1896 (2019)
Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) based on silicon-on-insulator wafers have been subject of intense research efforts due to the perspective of a compact photonic integration platform with high integration density, mass-production and compatibility with the well-established CMOS technology. Potential applications lie in the fields of communication technology and optical sensing. Unfortunately, silicon has some drawbacks in terms of material properties. For example, light emitting devices based on silicon are difficult to realize because it is an indirect transition material. Moreover, silicon does not show efficient electro-optic effects but significant optical losses due to two-photon absorption and free-electron absorption.
Therefore, functionalities of current silicon photonic platforms are expanded by using hybrid integration technologies, such as micro-transfer printing, wafer- and die-bonding. An approach to overcome material deficiencies is the heterogeneous integration of assisting materials using low-temperature deposition methods. Such materials are, for example, organic nonlinear optical materials, indium-phosphide, barium titanium oxide, silicon-nitride, germanium-tin.
In this work, we present a novel fabrication process to integrate functionalized organic materials into a silicon-based PIC-technology. This advanced fabrication process enables the development of functionalized photonic devices such as high-speed electro-optical modulators and electronically or optically pumped laser-sources. The devices are based on ring resonator structures and are fabricated in a 0.25 µm SiGe BiCMOS pilot line using 200 mm silicon-on-insulator wafers. This approach gives perspective for monolithically hybrid-integrated photonic devices in an electronic PIC (EPIC)-technology.
As proof of concept, we have developed an electro-optical silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a slot waveguide ring resonator. Supported by FEM-simulations, the slot waveguide is optimized for a maximized overlap between electrical and optical field. The slot waveguide structure provides an increased electric field strength due to the small gap between two electrodes. This gap ranges from 60 nm to 200 nm and allows for radio-frequency signal generation using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible voltages.
As organic material we use the nonlinear optical dye disperse red 1 (DR1) doped in PMMA. We report on the characterization of the organic material by means of spectral ellipsometry and photometry to predict device performance and to compare our estimations with experimental results. In particular, we show that the device tunability of the fabricated ring resonator is not affected by optical losses, which reflects the off-resonant nature of the electro-optical response of DR1 at an operation wavelength of 1550 nm.
The presented fabrication process is a major step towards monolithic hybrid-integrated photonic devices using functionalized organic materials in a PIC-technology.

(48) Optical Biosensors Based on Silicon-On-Insulator Ring Resonator: A Review
P. Steglich, M. Hülsemann, B. Dietzel, A. Mai
Molecules 24(3), 519 (2019)
DOI: 10.3390/molecules24030519, (HOPBIT)

(49) Mid-Infrared Optical Characterization of thin SiNx Membranes
M. Stocchi, D. Mencarelli, L. Pierantoni, D. Kot, M. Lisker, A. Göritz, C. Baristiran Kaynak, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak
Applied Optics 58(19), 5233 (2019)
(IHP-Sabanci Joint Lab)
The investigation of the optical constants (e.g. the refractive index n and the extinction coeffcient k) has been performed in the Mid-InfraRed (MIR) spectrum for various Silicon Nitride (SiNx) con gurations. By exploiting the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) formulation, photometric measurements of transmission and reflection have been used for iteratively calculating the optical parameters of interest. For ensuring the reliability of the latter, the same material from which these parameters were extracted from was deposited for three different thicknesses, e.g. 600, 200 and 100 nm. While the former is optically characterized, the remaining two are used for testing purposes. For each experimental/calculated comparison, the average (made over the whole considered spectrum interval) of the relative error never exceeds 1.5%, which ensures the correctness of the given n and k. For the sake of completeness, a detailed analysis of the intrinsic limitations arising from the very nature of the method will also be conducted.

(50) Inherent Stochastic Learning in CMOS Integrated HfO2 Arrays for Neuromorphic Computing
Ch. Wenger, F. Zahari, M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, I. Beckers, H. Kohlstedt, M. Ziegler
IEEE Electron Device Letters 40(4), 639 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/LED.2019.2900867, (NeuroMem)

(51) Recent Developments on SiGe BiCMOS Technologies for mm-Wave and THz Applications
M. Wietstruck, St. Marschmeyer, S. Schulze, S. Tolunay Wipf, Ch. Wipf, M. Kaynak
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2019), 1126 (2019)

(52) RF-MEMS Based V-Band Impedance Tuner Driven by Integrated High-Voltage LDMOS Switch Matrix and Charge Pump
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF.2019.8709116, (MEMS Integration)
To demonstrate a fully integrated RF-MEMS based system including HV generation and switching circuitry, a V-Band (40 – 75 GHz) single-stub impedance tuner comprising four RF-MEMS switches, a 40V charge pump, and LDMOS based HV switches is developed in a 0.25μm SiGe-BiCMOS technology. The chip size of the designed impedance tuning circuit enables the integration into an on-wafer RF-probe used for noise parameter and load-pull measurements. With the embedded high-voltage generation and switching circuitry the wiring effort, which is necessary to control the integrated RF-MEMS based impedance tuning chip, can be drastically reduced. The operation of the on-chip high-voltage generation and switching circuitry is demonstrated by the measured S-parameters for various combinations of activated RF-MEMS switches. The four integrated RF-MEMS switches enable 16 impedance states in the frequency range between 40 GHz and 60 GHz.

(53) RF-MEMS Based V-Band Impedance Tuner Driven by Integrated High-Voltage LDMOS Switch Matrix and Charge Pump
Ch. Wipf, R. Sorge, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, A. Scheit, D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF.2019.8709116, (LDMOS)
To demonstrate a fully integrated RF-MEMS based system including HV generation and switching circuitry, a V-Band (40 – 75 GHz) single-stub impedance tuner comprising four RF-MEMS switches, a 40V charge pump, and LDMOS based HV switches is developed in a 0.25μm SiGe-BiCMOS technology. The chip size of the designed impedance tuning circuit enables the integration into an on-wafer RF-probe used for noise parameter and load-pull measurements. With the embedded high-voltage generation and switching circuitry the wiring effort, which is necessary to control the integrated RF-MEMS based impedance tuning chip, can be drastically reduced. The operation of the on-chip high-voltage generation and switching circuitry is demonstrated by the measured S-parameters for various combinations of activated RF-MEMS switches. The four integrated RF-MEMS switches enable 16 impedance states in the frequency range between 40 GHz and 60 GHz.

(54) Horizontal DEMA Attack as the Criterion to Select the Best Suitable EM Probe
Ch. Wittke, I. Kabin, D. Klann, Z. Dyka, A. Datsuk, P. Langendörfer
über: http://eprint.iacr.org/
(Total Resilience)
Implementing cryptographic algorithms in a tamper resistant way is an extremely complex task as the algorithm used and the target platform have a significant impact on the potential leakage of the implementation. In addition the quality of the tools used for the attacks is of importance. In order to evaluate the resistance of a certain design against electromagnetic emanation attacks – as a highly relevant type of attacks – we discuss the quality of different electromagnetic (EM) probes as attack tools. In this paper we propose to use the results of horizontal attacks for comparison of measurement setup and for determining the best suitable instruments for measurements. We performed horizontal differential electromagnetic analysis (DEMA) attacks against our ECC design that is an im-plementation of the Montgomery kP algorithm for the NIST elliptic curve B-233. We experimented with 7 different EM probes under same conditions: attacked FPGA, design, inputs, measurement point and measurement equipment were the same, excepting EM probes. The used EM probe influences the success rate of performed attack significantly. We used this fact for the comparison of probes and for determining the best suitable one.

(55) Self-Ordered Ge Nanodot Fabrication by using Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itoh, P. Zaumseil, M.A. Schubert, G. Capellini, K. Washio, B. Tillack
ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology 8(3), P190 (2019)
DOI: 10.1149/2.0091903jss

(56) A Silicon Based 4.5-GHz Near-Field Capacitive Sensing Imaging Array
J. Zhou, R. Al Hadi, W. Qiao, Y. Zhao, C. Chen, M. Kaynak, S. Cheng, J.C M. Hwang, M.-C.F. Chang
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2019), 797 (2019)

(57) Compact Manganite-Graphene Magnetoresistive Sensor
N. Zurauskiene, R. Lukose, S. Balevicius, V. Stankevic, S. Kersulis, V. Plausinaitiene, M. Vagner, R. Navickas
IEEE Magnetics Letters 10, 8105605 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/LMAG.2019.2940172
A magnetic field sensor based on a manganite/Al2O3-substrate/three-layer graphene structure operating in the range of 0.1–20 T was designed and fabricated. The  La0.9Sr0.1 Mn1.2O3 (LSMO) manganite film and graphene layers were prepared on the opposite sides of polycrystalline Al2O3 substrate, which enabled scaling of the effective volume of the device to about 0.16 mm3. The combination of two materials—graphene with positive magnetoresistance (MR) and manganite with negative MR—led to a significant increase of the response signal and sensitivity compared with individual graphene or manganite sensors. This was achieved by increasing the MR of the individual manganite and graphene elements. The MR of LSMO was increased by using pulsed-injection metal-organic chemical vapor deposition based on two precursor sources with tunable vapor supersaturation and growth rate. The MR of three-layer graphene was optimized by changing the width/length ratio of the rectangular planar configuration and scaling the dimensions from millimeters to few hundred micrometers. The result was a maximal sensitivity of 72 mV/VT in the field range of 1–3 T.

The building and the infrastructure of the IHP were funded by the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union, funds of the Federal Government and also funds of the Federal State of Brandenburg.