Publikationen 2022

Script list Publications

(1) D-Band FMCW Radar with Sub-cm Range Resolution based on a BiCMOS mmWave IC
W. Ahmad, M. Kucharski, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. 18th European Radar Conference (EuRAD 2021), 533 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuRAD50154.2022.9784503, (Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)

(2) BiCMOS IQ Transceiver with Array-on-Chip for D-Band Joint Radar-Communication Applications
W. Ahmad, M. Kucharski, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. 22nd IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2022), 78 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/SiRF53094.2022.9720042, (Benchmarking Circuits/Radar Systems)

(3) High Efficiency 35 GHz MMICs Based on 0.2 μm AlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology
B. Cankaya-Akoglu, B. Sütbas, E. Ozbay
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies (IJMWT) 1 (2022)
In this paper, two high efficiency monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) are demonstrated using NANOTAM's in-house Ka-band fabrication technology. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with 0.2 μμm gate lengths are characterized, and an output power density of 2.9 W/mm is achieved at 35 GHz. A three-stage driver amplifier MMIC is designed, which has a measured gain higher than 19.3 dB across the frequency band of 33–36 GHz. The driver amplifier exhibits 31.9 dB output power and 26.5% power-added efficiency (PAE) at 35 GHz using 20 V supply voltage with 30% duty cycle. Another two-stage MMIC is realized as a power amplifier with a total output gate periphery of 1.8 mm. The output power and PAE of the power amplifier are measured as 3.91 W and 26.3%, respectively, at 35 GHz using 20 V supply voltage with 30% duty cycle. The high efficiency MMICs presented in this paper exhibit the capabilities of NANOTAM's 0.2 μμm AlGaN/GaN on SiC technology.

(4) Terahertz Subwavelength Sensing with Bio-Functionalized Germanium Fano-Resonators
C.A. Chavarin, E. Hardt, O. Skibitzki, T. Voss, M.H. Eissa, D. Spirito, G. Capellini, L. Baldassarre, J. Flesch, J. Piehler, C. You, S. Gruessing, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann
Frequenz: Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications 76(11-12), 639 (2022)
DOI: 10.1515/freq-2022-0078, (DFG-ESSENCE)
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) based on highly doped semiconductors microstructures, such as antennas, can be engineered to exhibit resonant features at THz frequencies. In this work, we demonstrate plasmonic antennas with increased quality factor LSPRs from Fano coupling to dark modes. We also discuss the advances in the biofunctionalization of n-doped Ge antennas for specific protein immobilization and cell interfacing. Finally, albumin biolayers with thickness of a few hundred nanometers are used to demonstrate the performance of the fano-coupled n-Ge antennas as sensors. A resonant change of over 10% in transmission, due to the presence of the biolayer, can be detected within a bandwidth of only 20 GHz.

(5) A 56-Gb/s Optical Receiver with 2.08-µA Noise Monolithically Integrated into a 250-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
G. Dziallas, A. Fatemi, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann, A. Malignaggi, G. Kahmen
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 70(1), 392 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2021.3104838
In this article, a monolithically integrated single-polarization optical receiver with automatic gain control is presented that shows state-of-the-art performance in terms of bandwidth (BW) and noise. A low-noise technique is applied in a monolithically integrated optical receiver featuring automatic gain and dc-offset cancellation control loops. The electronic and photonic components are fabricated on the same silicon substrate using IHP's 0.25-μm SiGe BiCMOS EPIC technology. The optical receiver features a high tunable transimpedance gain of 66 dBΩ at a large optoelectrical BW of 34 GHz and an input-referred noise current of 2.08 μA rms while consuming only 205 mW of power.

(6) 220-320-GHz J-Band 4-Way Power Amplifier in Advanced 130-nm BiCMOS Technology
M.H. Eissa, G. Fischer, T. Mausolf, H. Rücker, A. Malignaggi, G. Kahmen
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 32(11), 1335 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2022.3181407, (T-KOS)
A power combined wideband power amplifier (PA) covering the J -band (220–320 GHz) is presented in 130-nm BiCMOS technology. The input power is split by two cascaded 1-to-2 power splitters with amplification stages in-between. The four split signals drive four output stages, which have their outputs combined within a 4-way zero-degree combiner. The splitting and combining networks also incorporate impedance matching. After de-embedding the I/O pads and baluns of 2 dB loss at each side, the PA achieves a gain of 20 dB at the middle of the band and a minimum gain of 17 dB at 320 GHz with I/O return losses below − 5 dB. The PA records a saturated output power ranging from 9.5 to 14.5 dBm across the J -band. It consumes 710 mW from a 3 V supply which corresponds to a drain efficiency ( ηd ) of 3.15% at 270 GHz. The presented PA achieves twice better bandwidth with 1.5 times better ηd than the state-of-the-art silicon-based amplifiers above 200 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first PA covering the whole J -band in silicon technologies.

(7) 220-320-GHz J-Band 4-Way Power Amplifier in Advanced 130-nm BiCMOS Technology
M.H. Eissa, G. Fischer, T. Mausolf, H. Rücker, A. Malignaggi, G. Kahmen
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 32(11), 1335 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2022.3181407, (iCampus)
A power combined wideband power amplifier (PA) covering the J -band (220–320 GHz) is presented in 130-nm BiCMOS technology. The input power is split by two cascaded 1-to-2 power splitters with amplification stages in-between. The four split signals drive four output stages, which have their outputs combined within a 4-way zero-degree combiner. The splitting and combining networks also incorporate impedance matching. After de-embedding the I/O pads and baluns of 2 dB loss at each side, the PA achieves a gain of 20 dB at the middle of the band and a minimum gain of 17 dB at 320 GHz with I/O return losses below − 5 dB. The PA records a saturated output power ranging from 9.5 to 14.5 dBm across the J -band. It consumes 710 mW from a 3 V supply which corresponds to a drain efficiency ( ηd ) of 3.15% at 270 GHz. The presented PA achieves twice better bandwidth with 1.5 times better ηd than the state-of-the-art silicon-based amplifiers above 200 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first PA covering the whole J -band in silicon technologies.

(8) Miniaturized and Process-Tolerant Ku-Band Power Dividers using GaN on SiC
V. Ertürk, B. Sütbas, E. Ozbay, A. Atalar
Proc. 51st European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2021), 370 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMC50147.2022.9784393

(9) 4-Way 0.031-mm2 Switchable Bidirectional Power Divider for 5G mm-Wave Beamformers
A. Franzese, R. Negra, A. Malignaggi
Proc. IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC 2022), 95 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/RFIC54546.2022.9863192

(10) Ultracompact Inverted Input Delay Doherty Power Amplifier with a Novel Power Divider for 5G mm-Wave
A. Franzese, M.-D. Wey, R. Negra, A. Malignaggi
Proc. Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/MMS55062.2022.9825609

(11) 55% Fractional-Bandwidth Doherty Power Amplifier in 130-nm SiGe for 5G mm-Wave Applications
A. Franzese, N. Maletic, M.H. Eissa, M.-D. Wei, R. Negra, A. Malignaggi
Proc. 16th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2021), 273 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC50153.2022.9784073

(12) An N-Way Single-Inductor High-Pass Power Divider for 5G Applications
A. Franzese, R. Negra, A. Malignaggi
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters 5, 5 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LSSC.2022.3141931
This letter reports on the analysis and the design of a novel N-way single-inductor power divider (PD), which allows for a compact size regardless of the number of ports. Moreover, the reported topology simplifies the interconnection of the isolation resistors, making the design of PDs with more than four ports straightforward and systematic. Finally, a 4-way silicon prototype has been fabricated employing the IHP SG13S BiCMOS technology to validate the concept. The chip is meant for mmWave frequencies and is devoted to 5G applications. It occupies an area of 0.005 mm2 and provides a minimum loss of 1 dB, as well as phase and amplitude errors lower than 0.4 dB and 2°, respectively, in the band of interest. To the best of our knowledge, this design results in the smallest silicon area occupation, halving the size with respect to the state-of-the-art PDs. Comparable physical dimensions to the presented 4-way PD can only be achieved with 2-way designs.

(13) Performance Comparison of V-Band T/R Amplifier Module in SiGe Technology using Aluminium and Copper Back-End of Line
A. Gadallah, M.H. Eissa, D. Kissinger, A. Malignaggi
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2022), 20 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/SiRF53094.2022.9720040

(14) A 300-GHz Low-Noise Amplifier in 130-nm SiGe SG13G3 Technology
A. Gadallah, M.H. Eissa, T. Mausolf, D. Kissinger, A. Malignaggi
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 32(4), 331 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2021.3128762
This work presents a 300 GHz low noise amplifier in a SiGe:C 130nm BiCMOS technology, featuring ft/fmax of 470/700 GHz. The designed amplifier employs three cascaded stages in a pseudo-differential cascode topology with input and output baluns facilitating single-ended measurements. The first stage is matched trading-off noise and gain performance, while a T-type output matching network is used for broadband matching. The interstage matching is performed using center-tap transformers. On-wafer measurements show that the designed LNA has a peak small signal gain of 10.8 dB at 325 GHz, along with a 3 dB bandwidth of 68GHz and an input 1 dB compression point of -15.6dBm at 287.5 GHz. The simulated noise figure is better than 12.7 dB over the required band. The circuit occupies 0.26mmsilicon area and consumes 119mW from a 3.3V supply.

(15) A 250-300 GHz Frequency Multiplier-by-8 Chain in SiGe Technology
A. Gadallah, M.H. Eissa, T. Mausolf, D. Kissinger, A. Malignaggi
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2022), 657 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/IMS37962.2022.9865638

(16) Wideband Molecular Spectroscopy around 250 GHz and 500 GHz with SiGe BiCMOS Transmitters and Receivers
A. Glück, K. Schmalz, N. Rothbart, H.-W. Hübers
Proc. 47th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz50927.2022.9895664

(17) SiGe BiCMOS Heterodyne Receiver Frontend for Remote Sensing with Small Satellites
A. Glück, N. Rothbart, K. Schmalz, H.-W. Hübers
IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology 12(6), 603 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TTHZ.2022.3202032
Molecular spectroscopy with THz heterodyne receivers is an important and widely used method for remote sensing of gases in space, in the Earth's and planetary atmospheres, as well as in the coma of comets. For the use on small satellites, compact and light-weight receivers are needed. We have developed an integrated SiGe BiCMOS receiver frontend which is tunable from 225 GHz to 255 GHz and have characterized it for heterodyne spectroscopy. The double-sideband noise temperature is 11 000 K at a local oscillator frequency of 240 GHz and the Allan time is 1 s. With this receiver we successfully performed heterodyne absorption and emission spectroscopy of acetonitrile in laboratory experiments.

(18) Wideband, Compact and Efficient Frequency Quadrupler for Sub-Harmonic Transceiver in 130nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
R. Hasan, M.H. Eissa, M. Kucharski, H.J. Ng, D. Kissinger
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2022), 38 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/SiRF53094.2022.9720053, (T-KOS)

(19) A Robust Programmable Static Frequency Divider in Low-Voltage Emitter-Coupled Logic
F. Herzel, T. Mausolf, G. Fischer
Proc. 14th German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2022), 57 (2022)

(20) A Novel Architecture for Low-Jitter Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis
F. Herzel, T. Mausolf, G. Fischer
Frequenz: Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications 76(5-6), 337 (2022)
DOI: 10.1515/freq-2021-0188
A phase-locked loop (PLL) cascade driven by a crystal oscillator and a free running dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) is proposed. For minimizing phase noise, spurious tones and jitter, a programmable PLL1 in the lower GHz range is used to drive a millimeter-wave (mmW) PLL2 with a fixed frequency multiplication factor. The phase noise analysis results in two optimum bandwidths of the two PLLs for the lowest output jitter of the cascade. Phase noise and spurious tones (spurs) in PLL1 are further reduced by dividing the output frequency of PLL1 and up-converting it by means of a single-sideband (SSB) mixer driven by the DRO. By including the SSB mixer in the feedback loop of PLL1 manual tuning of the DRO is avoided, and a low-noise free running DRO can be employed. An exemplary design in SiGe BiCMOS technology is presented.

(21) Inductorless 96 Gb/s PAM-4 Optical Modulators Driver in SiGe:C BiCMOS
M. Inac, A. Peczek, F. Gerfers, A. Malignaggi
Proc. 17th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2022), 284 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC54520.2022.9923427

(22) Lumped Ultra-Broadband Linear Driver in 130 nm SiGe SG13G3 Technology
F. Iseini, A. Malignaggi, F. Korndörfer, M. Inac, G. Kahmen
Proc. IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium (BCICTS 2022), 140 (2022)
(100G)

(23) A Low-Jitter and Low-Reference-Spur 320 GHz Signal Source With an 80 GHz Integer-N Phase-Locked Loop Using a Quadrature XOR Technique
Y. Liang, C.C. Boon, G. Qi, G. Dziallas, D. Kissinger, H.J. Ng, P-I. Mak, Y. Wang
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 70(5), 2642 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2022.3156901
This article reports a 320-GHz low-jitter and low-reference-spur signal source consisting of an 80-GHz integer- N phase-locked loop (PLL) and a 320-GHz frequency quadrupler. The 80-GHz PLL features a novel dual-path quadrature exclusive-OR (QXOR) technique to cancel the spurs at the reference frequency and its harmonics, enabling low-spur and low-noise phase locking. The proposed phase detector (PD) also enables frequency detection and lock detection (LD), rendering the band-searching to be decoupled from the loop components. Implemented in a 0.13- μm SiGe BiCMOS technology, the proposed signal source shows a −73.1-dBc reference spur, −113.7-dB/Hz phase noise at 1-MHz offset at 40.96 GHz, and −90.3-dB/Hz phase noise at 1-MHz offset at 311.8 GHz. It achieves an integrated jitter of 66.9 fsrms at 40.96 GHz and 122 fsrms (both integrated from 10 kHz to 100 MHz) beyond 300 GHz, with a total division ratio of 512. The LD time is at the microsecond level. The maximum output power is −3.24 dBm, and the power consumption is 372 mW.

(24) A 79 GHz Millimeter-Wave Receiver Frontend with High Linearity for Civil-Automotive Radars in a 22-nm FD-SOI CMOS Technology
S. Li, M. Cui, L. Szilagyi, C. Carta, F. Ellinger
Proc. Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2022), 375 (2022)

(25) An Integrated Circuit to Reduce Phase Noise and Spurious Tones in Radar Systems
T. Mausolf, F. Herzel, G. Fischer
Proc. IEEE Nordic Circuits and Systems Conference (NorCAS 2022), 101 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/NorCAS57515.2022.9934454, (AMX IP)

(26) Wakeup Receiver Using Passive Amplification by Means of a Switched SAW Resonator
G. Meller, M. Methfessel, B. Lindner, J. Wagner, R. Kraemer, F. Ellinger
Proc. 19th IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON 2022), 136 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/SECON55815.2022.9918620

(27) A Dual-Modulus Frequency Divider up to 128 GHz in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
A. Minareci Ergintav, F. Herzel, F. Korndörfer, T. Mausolf, D. Kissinger, G. Fischer
Proc. 17th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2022), 48 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC54520.2022.9923549

(28) Millimeter-Wave Gas Spectroscopy for Breath Analysis of COPD Patients in Comparison to GC-MS
N. Rothbart, V. Stanley, R. Koczulla, I. Jarosch, O. Holz, K. Schmalz, H.-W. Hübers
Journal of Breath Research 16(4), 046001 (2022)
DOI: 10.1088/1752-7163/ac77aa, (DFG-ESSENCE)
The analysis of human breath is a very active area of research, driven by the vision of a fast, easy, and non-invasive tool for medical diagnoses at the point of care. Millimeter-wave gas spectroscopy (MMWGS) is a novel, well-suited technique for this application as it provides high sensitivity, specificity and selectivity. Most of all, it offers the perspective of compact low-cost systems to be used in doctors' offices or hospitals. In this work, we demonstrate the analysis of breath samples acquired in a medical environment using MMWGS and evaluate validity, reliability, as well as limitations and perspectives of the method. To this end, we investigated 28 duplicate samples from chronic obstructive lung disease patients and compared the results to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The quantification of the data was conducted using a calibration-free fit model, which describes the data precisely and delivers absolute quantities. For ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile, the results agree well with the GC-MS measurements and are as reliable as GC-MS. The duplicate samples deviate from the mean values by only 6% to 18%. Detection limits of MMWGS depend strongly on the molecular species. For example, acetonitrile can be traced down to 1.8 × 10−12 mol by the MMWGS system, which is comparable to the GC-MS system. We observed correlations of abundances between formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as well as between acetonitrile and acetaldehyde, which demonstrates the potential of MMWGS for breath research.

(29) A Compact Breath Gas Sensor System Based on Terahertz/Millimeter-Wave Gas Spectroscopy
N. Rothbart, K. Schmalz, R. Koczulla, H.-W. Hübers
Frequenz: Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications 76(11-12), 669 (2022)
DOI: 10.1515/freq-2022-0131
We demonstrate a full-cycle breath gas sensor system based on terahertz/millimeter-wave gas spectroscopy. The sensor consists of a transmitter and receiver working around 250 GHz based on SiGe BiCMOS technology. Typical detection thresholds are in the ppm range depending on the respective molecule. The data analysis provides partial pressures of the investigated molecules by fitting of spectra which are measured by wavelength modulation. Beside the spectroscopic measurement and the data analysis, a full cycle of breath analysis includes the sampling and the conditioning of the sample tubes. The full cycle takes about 35 min per sample in average. As the system is compact and easy to operate, it allows for on-site analysis of breath samples in medical laboratories or hospitals.

(30) Transmitter and Receiver in 0.13 μm SiGe for Gas Spectroscopy at 222-270/444-540 GHz
K. Schmalz, A. Glück, N. Rothbart, A. Güner, M.H. Eissa, H.-W. Hübers
IEEE Journal of Microwaves 2(4), 582 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/JMW.2022.3194062, (DFG-AGS)
This paper presents a transmitter (TX) and a receiver (RX) with a cross-polarized bowtie-antenna on silicon lens for gas spectroscopy at 222-270 GHz and the doubled frequency at 444-540 GHz, which are fabricated in 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The TX and RX use two integrated local oscillators for frequency subbands 222–256 GHz and 250–270 GHz, which allow to operate in one branch of the TX and RX, respectively, at 222-270 GHz and in a second branch of the TX and RX, respectively, at 444-540 GHz by frequency doubling. The cross-polarized bowtie-antenna of the TX and RX is optimized for these two frequency bands concerning its directivity with an estimated value of 24.4 dBi at 260 GHz, and 29.5 dBi at 520 GHz. Absorption spectroscopy of gaseous methanol is used as a measure for the performance of the TX and RX at the lower and upper frequency bands.

(31) Multiband Silicon Photonic ePIC Coherent Receiver for 64 GBd QPSK
P.M. Seiler, K. Voigt, A. Peczek, G. Georgieva, St. Lischke, A. Malignaggi, L. Zimmermann
IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 40(10), 3331 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2022.3158423
Multiband coherent communication is being handled as a promising candidate to address the increasing demand for higher data rates and capacity. At the same time, coherent communication is expected to enter the data center domain in the near future. With coherent data links in both, data- and telecom, spanning multiple optical bands, novel approaches to coherent transceiver design and traffic engineering will become a necessity. In this work, we present a monolithically integrated silicon photonic coherent receiver for O- and C-band. The receiver features a 2 × 2 multi-mode interference coupler network as 90∘ hybrid optimized for 1430 nm (E-band). The total power consumption is 460 mW at a footprint of approximately 6 mm2, and an opto-electrical bandwidth of 33 GHz. 64 GBd operation is demonstrated in O- and C-band, which is competitive to the state-of-the-art for silicon photonic coherent receiver in the C-band, and the highest symbol rate to date for O-band coherent communication.

(32) Self-Aligned on-Chip Spherical Dielectric Resonators and Antennas for SiGe MMIC
G. Sterzl, Y. Zhu, J. Hesselbarth, C. Carta, M. Lisker, F. Ellinger
Proc. Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2022), 686 (2022)

(33) Low-Power Ka- and V-Band Miller Compensated Amplifiers in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
B. Sütbas, H.J. Ng, J. Wessel, A. Koelpin, G. Kahmen
Proc. 16th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2021), 71 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC50153.2022.9783785, (iCampus)

(34) A V-band Low-Power and Compact Down-Conversion Mixer with Low LO Power in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
B. Sütbas, H.J. Ng, J. Wessel, A. Koelpin, G. Kahmen
Proc. 16th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2021), 96 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC50153.2022.9783953, (iCampus)

(35) A 7.2-mW V-Band Frequency Doubler with 14% Total Efficiency in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS
B. Sütbas, G. Kahmen
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 32(6), 579 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2022.3141557, (iCampus)
Low-voltage and low-power frequency multiplier blocks used in millimeter-wave RF frontends suffer from high conversion loss leading to lower overall efficiency. In this letter, an alternative approach in the design of a low-power V -band frequency doubler (FD) block without requiring an additional buffer stage is presented. The transconductance stage of a conventional Gilbert multiplier is replaced by a passive trifilar transformer serving as a power splitting, matching, and biasing network. The switching quad transistors are biased with the lowest possible dc current which still provides a positive conversion gain. Experimental results show that the circuit implemented in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology achieves 14% total efficiency at 58 GHz for an input power of 0 dBm while consuming only 7.2 mW of dc power. The measured saturated output power is 2 dBm and the measured fundamental rejection ratio (FRR) is 49 dBc. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the lowest power consumption while maintaining a positive conversion gain among high FDs based on silicon is reported.

(36) Frequency Doubler for 77 GHz Radar with 14 dB Conversion Gain and 7.3% Efficiency in 22 nm FDSOI
L. Szilagyi, S. Li, X. Xu, P.V. Testa, A. Seidel, C. Carta, F. Ellinger
Proc. Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2022), 369 (2022)

(37) Energy Efficient ADC for Low Fan-Out MIMO Sub-THz Imaging System in SiGe:BiCMOS Technology
M. Uhlmann, R. Hussung, M.H. Eissa, A. Keil, F. Friedrich, G. Fischer, P. Ostrovskyy
Proc. European Microwave Week (EuMW 2022), 44 (2022)
(T-KOS)

(38) Long-Term Large-Signal RF Reliability Characterization of SiGe HBTs Using a Passive Impedance Tuner System
C. Weimer, E. Vardarli, G.G. Fischer, M. Schröter
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2022), 922 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/IMS37962.2022.9865576, (SIGEREL)

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