Publications 2022

Script list Publications

(1) Scalable FPGA Hardware Accelerator for SVM Inference
M. Aftowicz, K. Lehniger, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 10th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet-of-Things (CPS&IoT 2022), 44 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/MECO55406.2022.9797110, (MORFEUS)

(2) A New Injection Threat on S7-1500 PLCs - Disrupting the Physical Process Offline
W. Alsabbagh, P. Langendörfer
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society 3, 146 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/OJIES.2022.3151528, (KITS)
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are increasingly connected and integrated into the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) for a better network connectivity and a more streamlined control process. But in fact, this brings also its security challenges and exposes them to various cyber-attacks targeting the physical process controlled by such devices. In this work, we investigate whether the newest S7 PLCs are vulnerable by design and can be exploited. In contrast to the typical control logic injection attacks existing in the research community, which require from adversaries to be online along the ongoing attack, this article introduces a new exploit strategy that aims at disrupting the physical process controlled by the infected PLC when adversaries are not connected neither to the target nor to its network at the point zero for the attack. Our exploit approach is comprised of two prime steps: 1) patching the PLC with a malicious Time-of-Day interrupt block once an attacker gains access to an exposed PLC, 2) triggering the interrupt at a later time on the attacker will, when he is disconnected to the system’s network. For a real attack scenario, we implemented our attack approach on a Fischertechnik training system based on S7-1500 PLC using the latest version of S7CommPlus protocol. Our experimental results showed that we could keep the patched interrupt block in idle mode and hidden in the PLC memory for a long time without being revealed before being activated at a specific date and time that the attacker wishes. Finally, we suggested some potential security recommendations to protect our industrial environments from such a threat.

(3) No Need to be Online to Attack - Exploiting S7-1500 PLCs by Time-Of-Day Block
W. Alsabbagh, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 28th International Conference on Information, Communication and Automation Technologies (ICAT 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/ICAT54566.2022.9811147, (KITS)

(4) Return-Oriented Programming Gadget Catalog for the Xtensa Architecture
B. Amatov, K. Lehniger, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 6th International Workshop on Security, Privacy and Trust in the Internet of Things (SPT-IoT), 655 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/PerComWorkshops53856.2022.9767489, (MORFEUS)

(5) Psychological Targeting: Nudge or Boost to Foster Mindful and Sustainable Consumption?
E. Hermann
AI & Society (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/s00146-022-01403-4, (Kompetenzzentrum IHP/BTU)
Artificial intelligence offers not only unprecedented opportunities for business and marketing, but also for the promotion of social and environmental good. In this article, I propose that psychological targeting powered by artificial intelligence can foster mindful and sustainable consumption by tailoring appeals (informational nudges) or nurturing consumers’ competences (boosts), thereby accounting for the social-good-perspective on the development and deployment of artificial intelligence.

(6) Artificial Intelligence and Mass Personalization of Communication Content - An Ethical and Literacy Perspective
E. Hermann
New Media & Society 24(5), 1258 (2022)
DOI: 10.1177/14614448211022702, (Kompetenzzentrum IHP/BTU)
Artificial intelligence (AI) is (re)shaping communication and contributes to (commercial and informational) need satisfaction by means of mass personalization. However, the substantial personalization and targeting opportunities do not come without ethical challenges. Following an AI-for-social-good perspective, the authors systematically scrutinize the ethical challenges of deploying AI for mass personalization of communication content from a multi-stakeholder perspective. The conceptual analysis reveals interdependencies and tensions between ethical principles, which advocate the need of a basic understanding of AI inputs, functioning, agency, and outcomes. By this form of AI literacy, individuals could be empowered to interact with and treat mass-personalized content in a way that promotes individual and social good while preventing harm.

(7) Atomicity and Regularity Principles do not Ensure Full Resistance of ECC Designs Against Single-Trace Attacks
I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, P. Langendörfer
Sensors (MDPI) 22(8), 3083 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/s22083083, (Total Resilience)
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is one of the commonly used standard methods for encrypting and signing messages which is essential when it comes to IoT communication. In this paper we discuss the resistance of our fast dual-field ECDSA accelerator against side-channel analysis attacks. We present our implementation of a design supporting four different NIST Elliptic Curves to allow the reader to understand the discussion of the resistance aspects. For two different target platforms – ASIC and FPGA – we show that the application of atomic patterns, which is in the literature considered to ensure resistance against simple side-channel analysis attacks is not sufficient to prevent neither simple SCA nor horizontal address-bit DPA attacks. We also evaluate an approach to increase the inherent resistance of the design against performed attacks which is based on the activity of the field multiplier.

(8) SmartDSM: Data Space Middleware for Distributed Measurement Systems
I. Koropiecki, K. Piotrowski, R. Szulim
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 37 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(9) SmartDSM: Data Space Middleware for Distributed Measurement Systems
I. Koropiecki, K. Piotrowski, R. Szulim
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 37 (2022)
(ebalance plus)

(10) Testing Smart Grid Scenarios with Small Volume Testbed and Flexible Power Inverter
M. Krysik, K. Piotrowski, K. Turchan
Energies (MDPI) 15(2), 428 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/en15020428, (e-balance)
Growing penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) due to transition to future smart grid requires a huge amount of power converters that participate in the power flow. Each of these devices needs the use of a complex control and communication system, thus a platform for testing real-life scenarios is necessary. Several test techniques have been so far proposed that are subject to a trade-off between cost, test coverage, and test fidelity. This paper presents an approach for testing microgrids, by developing an emulator, with emphasis on the micro inverter unit and the possibility of flexible configuration for different grid topologies. In contrast to other approaches, our testbed is characterized by small volume and significantly scaled-down voltages for safety purposes. The test scenarios include behaviors in case of load changes, transition between grid-tied and islanded mode, connection and removal of subsequent inverters, and prioritization of inverters.

(11) Idea of Monitoring Internal Processes of Distributed Solar Inverters
M. Krysik, K. Piotrowski, R. Rybski
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 49 (2022)
(ebalance plus)

(12) FPGA-based Realtime detection of Freezing of Gait of Parkinson Patients
P. Langer, A. Haddadi Esfahani, Z. Dyka, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 16th EAI International Conference on Body Area Networks (BODYNETS 2021), in: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, Springer, LNICST 420, 101 (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-95593-9_9, (FastGait)

(13) Finding Gadgets in Incremental Code Updates for Return-Oriented Programming Attacks on Resource-Constrained Devices
K. Lehniger, A. Saad, P. Langendörfer
Annals of Telecommunications (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/s12243-022-00917-8, (MORFEUS)
Code-reuse attacks pose a threat to embedded devices since they are able to defeat common security defences such as non-executable stacks. To succeed in his code-reuse attack, the attacker has to gain knowledge of some or all of the instructions of the target firmware/software. In case of a bare metal firmware that is protected from being dumped out of a device, it is hard to know the running instructions of the target firmware. This consequently makes code-reuse attacks more difficult to achieve. This paper presents a novel approach how an attacker can gain knowledge of some of these instructions by sniffing unencrypted incremental updates. These updates exist to reduce the radio reception power for resource-constrained devices. It will be demonstrated how a return-oriented programming (ROP) attack can be accomplished on a MSP430 MCU using only the passively sniffed incremental updates. The generated updates of the R3diff and Delta Generator (DG) differencing algorithms will be under assessment. The evaluation reveals that both of them can be exploited by the attacker and how an attacker can maximize his information gain when dealing with more than one update. It also shows that the DG generated updates leak more information than the R3diff generated updates. This stresses the fact that even delta updates need to be protected with encryption. To defend against this attack, different countermeasures that consider different power consumption scenarios are proposed, but yet to be evaluated.

(14) System do Zdalnego Monitorowania Stanu Walu Przeciwpowodziowego nad Odra
L. Macioszek, N. Lukaniszyn, R. Rybski, J. Kostecki, U. Kolodziejczyk, K. Piotrowski
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemysle (SP 2022), 57 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(15) Kangaroo: Multi-Hop Protocol Stack for Smart City Sensor Networks
J. Maj, K. Piotrowski, E. Michta
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 61 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(16) Kangaroo: Multi-Hop Protocol Stack for Smart City Sensor Networks
J. Maj, K. Piotrowski, E. Michta
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 61 (2022)
(ebalance plus)

(17) Kafka-ML: Connecting the Data Stream with ML/AI Frameworks
Ch. Martin, P. Langendörfer, P.S. Zarrin, M. Diaz, B. Rubio
Future Generation Computer Systems 126, 15 (2022)
DOI: 10.1016/j.future.2021.07.037
Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) depend on data sources to train, improve, and make predictions through their algorithms. With the digital revolution and current paradigms like the Internet of Things, this information is turning from static data to continuous data streams. However, most of the ML/AI frameworks used nowadays are not fully prepared for this revolution. In this paper, we propose Kafka-ML, a novel and open-source framework that enables the management of ML/AI pipelines through data streams. Kafka-ML provides an accessible and user-friendly Web user interface where users can easily define ML models, to then train, evaluate, and deploy them for inferences. Kafka-ML itself and the components it deploys are fully managed through containerization technologies, which ensure their portability, easy distribution, and other features such as fault-tolerance and high availability. Finally, a novel approach has been introduced to manage and reuse data streams, which may eliminate the need for data storage or file systems.

(18) Towards a Multisensor Station for Automated Biodiversity Monitoring
K. Piotrowski, J.W. Wägele, P. Bodesheim, S.J. Bourlat, J. Denzler, M. Diepenbroek, V. Fonseca, K.-H. Frommolt, M.F. Geiger, B. Gemeinholzer, F.O. Glöckner, T. Haucke, A. Kirse, A. Kölpin, I. Kostadinov, H.S. Kühl, F. Kurth, M. Lasseck, S. Liedke, F. Losch, S. Müller, N. Petrovskaya, B. Radig, Ch. Scherber, L. Schoppmann, J. Schulz, V. Steinhage, G.F. Tschan, W. Vautz, D. Velotto, M. Weigend, St. Wildermann
Basic and Applied Ecology 59, 105 (2022)
DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2022.01.003, (AMMOD)
Rapid changes of the biosphere observed in recent years are caused by both small and large scale drivers, like shifts in temperature, transformations in land-use, or changes in the energy budget of systems. While the latter processes are easily quantifiable, documentation of the loss of biodiversity and community structure is more difficult. Changes in organismal abundance and diversity are barely documented. Censuses of species are usually fragmentary and inferred by often spatially, temporally and ecologically unsatisfactory simple species lists for individual study sites. Thus, detrimental global processes and their drivers often remain unrevealed. A major impediment to monitoring species diversity is the lack of human taxonomic expertise that is implicitly required for large-scale and fine-grained assessments. Another is the large amount of personnel and associated costs needed to cover large scales, or the inaccessibility of remote but nonetheless affected areas.
To overcome these limitations we propose a network of Automated Multisensor stations for Monitoring of species Diversity (AMMODs) to pave the way for a new generation of biodiversity assessment centers. This network combines cutting-edge technologies with biodiversity informatics and expert systems that conserve expert knowledge. Each AMMOD station combines autonomous samplers for insects, pollen and spores, audio recorders for vocalizing animals, sensors for volatile organic compounds emitted by plants (pVOCs) and camera traps for mammals and small invertebrates. AMMODs are largely self-containing and have the ability to pre-process data (e.g. for noise filtering) prior to transmission to receiver stations for storage, integration and analyses. Installation on sites that are difficult to access require a sophisticated and challenging system design with optimum balance between power requirements, bandwidth for data transmission, required service, and operation under all environmental conditions for years. An important prerequisite for automated species identification are databases of DNA barcodes, animal sounds, for pVOCs, and images used as training data for automated species identification. AMMOD stations thus become a key component to advance the field of biodiversity monitoring for research and policy by delivering biodiversity data at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.

(19) Elastic Energy Management Algorithm using IoT Technology for Devices with Smart Appliance Functionality to React to the Occurrence of Overvoltage in the Smart-Grid
P. Powroznik, P. Szczesniak, K. Piotrowski
Energies (MDPI) 15(1), 109 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/en15010109, (ebalance plus)
Currently, ensuring the correct functioning of the electrical grid is an important issue in terms of maintaining the normative voltage parameters and local line overloads. The unpredictability of renewable energy sources, the occurrence of the phenomenon of peak demand as well as the exceeding of the voltage level above the nominal values in the smart grid makes it justified to conduct further research in this field. The article presents the results of simulation tests and experimental laboratory tests of an electricity management system in order to reduce excessively high grid load or reduce excessively high grid voltage values resulting from increased production of prosumer RES. The research was based on the Elastic EnergyManagement algorithm for devices using IoT technology. The data for the algorithm was obtained from a message broker that implements the MQTT protocol. The presented results of the simulation and experiment confirmed the possibility of regulating the network voltage by the Elastic Energy Management algorithm in the event of voltage fluctuations related to excessive load or local generation.

(20) An Elastic Energy Management Algorithm in a Hierarchical Control System with Distributed Control Devices
P. Powroznik, P. Szczesniak, K. Turchan, M. Krysik, I. Koropiecki, K. Piotrowski
Energies (MDPI) 15(13), 4750 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/en15134750, (ebalance plus)
In modern Electric Power Systems, emphasis is placed on the increasing share of electricity from renewable energy sources (PV, wind, hydro, etc.) at the expense of energy generated with the use of fossil fuels. This will lead to changes in energy supply. When there is excessive generation from RES, there will be too much energy in the system, otherwise there will be a shortage of energy. Therefore, smart devices should be introduced into the system, the operation of which can be initiated by the conditions of the power grid. This will allow the load profiles of the power grid to be changed and the electricity supply to be used more rationally. The article proposes an elastic energy management algorithm (EEM) in a hierarchical control system with distributed control devices, for controlling domestic smart appliances (SA). In the simulation part, scenarios of the algorithm’s operation were carried out for 1000 households with the use of the distribution of activities of individual SAs. In experimental studies, simplified results for three SA types and 100 devices for each type were presented. The obtained results confirm that thanks to the use of SAs and the appropriate algorithm for their control, it is possible to change the load profile of the power grid. The efficacious operation of SAs will be possible thanks to the change of habits of electricity users, which is briefly described in the article.

(21) An Elastic Energy Management Algorithm in a Hierarchical Control System with Distributed Control Devices
P. Powroznik, P. Szczesniak, K. Turchan, M. Krysik, I. Koropiecki, K. Piotrowski
Energies (MDPI) 15(13), 4750 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/en15134750, (SmartGrid Plattform)
In modern Electric Power Systems, emphasis is placed on the increasing share of electricity from renewable energy sources (PV, wind, hydro, etc.) at the expense of energy generated with the use of fossil fuels. This will lead to changes in energy supply. When there is excessive generation from RES, there will be too much energy in the system, otherwise there will be a shortage of energy. Therefore, smart devices should be introduced into the system, the operation of which can be initiated by the conditions of the power grid. This will allow the load profiles of the power grid to be changed and the electricity supply to be used more rationally. The article proposes an elastic energy management algorithm (EEM) in a hierarchical control system with distributed control devices, for controlling domestic smart appliances (SA). In the simulation part, scenarios of the algorithm’s operation were carried out for 1000 households with the use of the distribution of activities of individual SAs. In experimental studies, simplified results for three SA types and 100 devices for each type were presented. The obtained results confirm that thanks to the use of SAs and the appropriate algorithm for their control, it is possible to change the load profile of the power grid. The efficacious operation of SAs will be possible thanks to the change of habits of electricity users, which is briefly described in the article.

(22) Zastosowanie Technologii Reflektometrii w Dziedzinie Czasu do Badan Parametrow Gruntow
R. Rybski, T. Frygiel, J. Kostecki, K. Piotrowski
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemysle (SP 2022), 85 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(23) Distributed Artificial Intelligence as a Means to Achieve Self-X-Functions for Increasing Resilience: the First Steps
O. Shamilyan, I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, P. Langendoerfer
Proc. International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet-of-Things (CPS & IoT 2022), 34 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/MECO55406.2022.9797193, (Total Resilience)

(24) Graphical User Interface in the SmartRiver System
R. Szulim, P. Powroznik, E. Michta, K. Piotrowski, I. Koropiecki
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemysle (SP 2022), 97 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(25) Code Mutation as a Mean Against ROP Attacks for Embedded Systems
P. Tabatt, J. Jelonek, M. Schölzel, K. Lehniger, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 11th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO 2022), 189 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/MECO55406.2022.9797185, (MORFEUS)

(26) Efficient and Flexible Intelligence on the Edge
K. Turchan, K. Piotrowski, E. Michta
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 109 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(27) Efficient and Flexible Intelligence on the Edge
K. Turchan, K. Piotrowski, E. Michta
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 109 (2022)
(ebalance plus)

(28) Emulation as a Means to Evaluate Energy Management Algorithms
K. Turchan, K. Piotrowski, M. Krysik, I. Koropiecki, P. Powroznik
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 105 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(29) Emulation as a Means to Evaluate Energy Management Algorithms
K. Turchan, K. Piotrowski, M. Krysik, I. Koropiecki, P. Powroznik
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 105 (2022)
(ebalance plus)

(30) Low Voltage Warning System for Stand-Alone Metering Station using AI on the Edge
K. Turchan, K. Piotrowski
Proc. 9th Machine Intelligence and Digital Interaction (MIDI 2021), in: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer, LNNS 440, 107 (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-11432-8_10, (SmartRiver)

(31) Low Voltage Warning System for Stand-Alone Metering Station using AI on the Edge
K. Turchan, K. Piotrowski
Proc. 9th Machine Intelligence and Digital Interaction (MIDI 2021), in: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer, LNNS 440, 107 (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-11432-8_10, (Space Region)

(32) Low Voltage Warning System for Stand-Alone Metering Station using AI on the Edge
K. Turchan, K. Piotrowski
Proc. 9th Machine Intelligence and Digital Interaction (MIDI 2021), in: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer, LNNS 440, 107 (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-11432-8_10, (AMMOD)

(33) Modular AI Applications Followinfg the Sens4u Approach
K. Woloszyn, K. Piotrowski, E. Michta
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 117 (2022)
(Space Region)

(34) Tinydsm: Data-Oriented Middleware for Low-Power IOT Devices
P. Zielony, K. Piotrowski, E. Michta
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 121 (2022)
(SmartRiver)

(35) Tinydsm: Data-Oriented Middleware for Low-Power IOT Devices
P. Zielony, K. Piotrowski, E. Michta
Proc. 14th Konferencja Naukowa Systemy Pomiarowe w badaniach naukowych i w przemyśle (SP 2022), 121 (2022)
(AMMOD)

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