Publications 2022

Script list Publications

(1) A D-Band Power Amplifier with 15 dBm Psat in 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
I.K. Aksoyak, M. Mock, M. Kaynak, A.C. Ulusoy
Proc. 22nd IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF), 5 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/SiRF53094.2022.9720048

(2) A D-Band Power Amplifier with Four-Way Combining in 0.13-μm SiGe
I.K. Aksoyak, M. Möck , M. Kaynak, A.C. Ulusoy
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 32(11), 1343 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2022.3178933, (SMARTWAVE)

(3) A 8-18 GHz Low Noise Variable Gain Amplifier with 30 dB Gain Control Range
K. Altinas, T.A. Ozkan, M. Yazici, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
Proc. 17th European Microwave Conference (EuMIC 2022), 752 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC54520.2022.9923440

(4) Lateral-Selective SiGe Growth for Dislocation-Free Virtual Substrate Fabrication
K. Anand, M.A. Schubert, A.A. Corley-Wiciak, D. Spirito, C. Corley-Wiciak, W.M. Klesse, A. Mai, B. Tillack, Y. Yamamoto
ECS Transactions 109(4), 269 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0269ecst
Dislocation free local SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate is fabricated using lateral selective SiGe growth by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The lateral selective SiGe growth is performed around ~1.25 μm square Si (001) pillar in a cavity formed by HCl vapor phase etching of Si at 850 °C from side of SiO2 / Si mesa structure on buried oxide. Smooth root mean square roughness of SiGe surface of 0.14 nm, which is determined by interface roughness between the sacrificially etched Si and the SiO2 cap, is obtained. Uniform Ge content of ~40% in the laterally grown SiGe is observed. In the Si pillar, tensile strain of ~0.65% is found which could be due to thermal expansion difference between SiO2 and Si. In the SiGe, tensile strain of ~1.4% along <010> direction, which is higher compared to that along <110> direction, is observed. The tensile strain is induced from both [110] and [-110] directions. Threading dislocations in the SiGe are located only ~400 nm from Si pillar and stacking faults are running towards <110> directions, resulting in wide dislocation-free area formation in SiGe along <010> due to horizontal aspect ratio trapping. 

(5) Lateral-Selective SiGe Growth for Dislocation-Free Virtual Substrate Fabrication
K. Anand, M.A. Schubert, A.A. Corley-Wiciak, D. Spirito, C. Corley-Wiciak, W.M. Klesse, A. Mai, B. Tillack, Y. Yamamoto
ECS Transactions
Proc. 242nd ECS Meeting: SiGe, Ge, and Related Compounds: Materials, Processing and Devices (ECS Meeting 2022), (2022)

(6) Broadband Modeling, Analysis, and Characterization of SiGe HBT Terahertz Direct Detectors
M. Andree, J. Grzyb, R. Jain, B. Heinemann, U.R. Pfeiffer
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 70(2), 1314 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2021.3134646
This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the terahertz (THz) rectification process with modern high-speed silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) devices to enable low-power and close-to-optimum detector sensitivity in a near-THz fractional bandwidth. The influence of all major device internal parasitics on the detector responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) is analyzed in detail as a function of the device bias point and the operating frequency. By analogy to the cold MOSFET operation, the fundamentals of the detector operating in weak and deep saturation are studied and compared with the forward-active region, indicating its potentially superior NEP performance with a suitable readout path. The antenna’s broadband radio frequency (RF) power coupling aspects are further elaborated and related to the device bias conditions to maximize the internal base–emitter driving voltage. A set of single- and dual-polarized antenna-coupled detectors with close-to-optimum detector operation in a near-THz fractional bandwidth and a state-of-the-art optical performance was implemented in a 0.13- μm SiGe HBT technology with ft/fmax of 350/550 GHz and extensively characterized across 200–1000 GHz to support the underlying analysis. For the forward-active operation, the following maximum optical current responsivity and minimum optical NEP values have been demonstrated: 5 A/W, 1.9 pW/ √Hz at 300 GHz and 0.65 A/W, 19 pW/ √Hz at 900 GHz. The corresponding NEP values for deep saturation (with unbiased collector) are 5.1 pW/ √Hz and 45 pW/ √Hz but they are largely limited by the noise floor of the consecutive external amplifier.

(7) A Single-Stage Low-Noise SiGe HBT Distributed Amplifier with 13 dBm Output Power and 20 dB Gain in D-Band and over 170 GHz Bandwidth
Y. Baeyens, M.W. Mansha, H. Rücker
Proc. 17th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2022), 52 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC54520.2022.9923462, (SG13G3)

(8) Determination of Optical Constants and Scattering Properties of Transparent Polymers for Use in Optoelectronics
J. Bauer, O. Fursenko, F. Heinrich, M. Gutke, E. Kornejew, O. Broedel, B. Dietzel, A. Kaltenbach, M. Burkhardt, M. Edling, P. Steglich, M. Herzog, S. Schrader
Optical Materials Express 12(1), 204 (2022)
DOI: 10.1364/OME.434715
Knowledge of optical constants, i.e. refractive index n and extinction coefficient k, and light scattering properties of optical polymers are required to optimize micro-optics for light-emitting diodes in terms of efficiency, color properties and light distribution. We present here a model-based diagnostic approach to determine the optical properties of polymers, which should be particularly useful in the development of plastics for optical applications. Optical constants and scattering coefficients were obtained from transmission and reflection measurements in a wavelength range from UV to NIR taking into account scattering effects due to rough surfaces and volume inhomogeneity. Based on the models for the dielectric function, the molecular optical transition energies Eg, critical point energies, Urbach energies and exciton transition energies were determined. Rayleigh and Mie scattering model and van de Hulst's anomalous diffraction theory were applied to characterize scattering due to volume inhomogeneities. Scalar diffraction theory was applied to account for surface roughness scattering. Atomic force microscopy with nanomechanical characterization was used to characterize domains in size and shape and to assign optical scattering to a suitable morphological model. The combined optical and mechanical characterization help to improve the qualification of new polymer materials for optical applications.

(9) Separation of Heterotrophic Microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii by Dielectrophoresis
M. Birkholz, D.E. Malti, S. Hartmann, P. Neubauer
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 10, 855035 (2022)
DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.855035
Microalgae constitute an abundant source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids which are applied in various biotechnological fields such as pharmaceuticals and food supplement. Separating microalgae cells with respect to their lipid content would establish a relevant at-line analytical technique. The present study demonstrates an electrical approach for the separation of the lipid-producing microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii using the effect of dielectrophoresis (DEP) in a microfluidic flow cell. Microalgae were cultivated for 8 days, while cell growth was characterized by optical density, dry cell weight, glucose concentration and lipid content via fluorescence microscopy. The size distribution of cells during cultivation was thoroughly investigated, since the DEP force scales with cell volume, but also depends on lipid content via cell electrophysiological constants. Thus, the challenge was to deconvolute one separation effect from the other, while the electrical cell constants of C. cohnii are not known yet. The DEP-dependent separation was realized by slanted top-bottom electrodes with the flowing cell suspension between them. Turning on the voltage deflected the cells from their initial path as determined by the streaming and thus changed their direction of flow. The separation efficiency of DEP was tested for various electrical field strengths and its performance was determined by quantitative analysis of optical and fluorescence videos. It could be shown for all size groups that the most lipid-containing cells were always subject to DEP separation and that the method is thus not only suitable for process analysis, but also for strain selection of the most productive cell lines.

(10) Ultra-Wideband Frequency Doubler with Differential Outputs in SiGe BiCMOS
C. Bohn, M. Kaynak, T. Zwick, A.C. Ulusoy
Proc. 22nd IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2022), 58 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/SiRF53094.2022.9720043

(11) The IC Ultra-Thin Back Surface - A Field of Real Nanoscale Fault Isolation Opportunities Requiring a Skillful Sample Preparation
C. Boit, J. Jatzkowski, F. Altmann, M. DiBattista, S. Silverman, G. Zwicker, N. Herfurth, E. Amini, J.-P. Seifert
Proc. 29th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/IPFA55383.2022.9915783

(12) The Impact of Signal Quality in Dielectrophoresis Experiments
N. Boldt, J. Späth, S. Hartmann, M. Birkholz, R. Thewes
Proc. IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCas 2022), 354 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/BioCAS54905.2022.9948589, (Bioelectronics)

(13) Photonic and Optomechanical Thermometry
T. Briant, S. Krenek, A. Cupertino, F. Loubar, R. Braive, L. Weituschat, D. Ramos, M.J. Martin, P.A. Postigo, A. Casas, R. Eisermann, D. Schmid, S. Tabandeh, O. Hahtela, S. Pourjamal, O. Kozlova, S. Kroker, W. Dickmann, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Martel, P.G. Steeneken, R.A. Norte, S. Briaudeau
Optics (MDPI) 3(2), 159 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/opt3020017, (PhotOQant)
Temperature is one of the most relevant physical quantities that affects almost all processes in nature. However, the realization of accurate temperature standards using current temperature references, like the triple point of water, is difficult due to the requirements on material purity and stability of the environment. In addition, in harsh environments, current temperature sensors with electrical readout, like platinum resistors, are difficult to implement, urging the development of optical temperature sensors. In 2018, the European consortium Photoquant, consisting of metrological institutes and academic partners, started investigating new temperature standards for self-calibrated, embedded optomechanical sensor applications, as well as optimised high resolution and high reliability photonic sensors, to measure temperature at the nano and meso-scales and as a possible replacement for the standard platinum resistant thermometers. This article presents an overview of the results obtained with sensor prototypes that exploit photonic and optomechanical techniques for sensing temperatures over a large temperature range (5 K to 300 K). Different concepts are demonstrated, including ring resonators, ladder-like resonators and suspended membrane optomechanical thermometers, highlighting initial performance and challenges, like self-heating that need to be overcome to realize photonic and optomechanical thermometry applications.

(14) In-Orbit Real-Time CMOS TDI Detector Validation and Control to Meet Constant Imaging Quality Over the Mission Life Time
J. Buschek, K. Manthey, A. Eckardt, R. Reulke, G. Kahmen
Proc. Earth Observing Systems XXVII, 12232, 1223205 (2022)
DOI: 10.1117/12.2631978

(15) A Broadband 300 GHz Power Amplifier in a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Communication Applications
T. Bücher, J. Grzyb, P. Hillger, H. Rücker, B. Heinemann, U.R. Pfeiffer
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 57(7), 2024 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2022.3162079, (DFG-Dotseven2IC)
A broadband three-stage pseudo-differential SiGe-interconnection bipolar transistor (HBT) power amplifier (PA) for high-speed communication at around 300 GHz is presented. The amplifier is fabricated in an experimental 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology with an ft/fmax of 470/650 GHz. The use of asymmetric coupled line transformers is proposed to facilitate broadband impedance transformation with device reactance compensation at all amplifier interfaces. The amplifier achieves a maximum small-signal power gain of 23.0 dB and a Psat/OP1dB up to 9.7/6.7 dBm, respectively. It shows a 3-dB bandwidth of 63 GHz (239–302 GHz) in small-signal operation and 94 GHz (223–317 GHz) when saturated. The amplifier consumes about 360 mW at a 3-V supply voltage yielding a peak power-added efficiency (PAE) of 1.95% at 260 GHz.

(16) An Assembly Process Oriented Thermal-Mechanical Characterization of a Fan-Out Wafer-Level Package
Z. Cao, B. Heusdens, A. Ziaei, M. Kaynak
Proc. 52nd European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2022), 185 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC54520.2022.9923481, (FLEXCOM)

(17) An Advanced Finite Element Model for BiCMOS Process Oriented Ultra-Thin Wafer Deformation
Z. Cao, A. Göritz, M. Stocchi, M. Wietstruck, C. Hoyer, L.D. Steinweg, C. Carta, F. Ellinger, B. Tillack, M. Kaynak
IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 35(1), 2 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TSM.2021.3132550
A process-oriented wafer-scale finite element model is developed and validated. The model is used to study the relationship between the in-plane residual stress and the deformation of state-of-the-art 0.13-μm SiGe BiCMOS fully processed 8-inch wafers. Based on the in-situ wafer bow measurement results, the residual stress values are extracted regarding each deposited material per process step. The extracted material residual stress values are integrated into the in-plane stresses of each back-end redistribution layer by knowing the material densities, greatly reducing the computational effort. An advanced finite element model composed of these integrated redistribution layers is therefore developed by exploiting the first order shear deformation theory. The model is validated using analytical solutions and is used to characterize the wafer thickness-deflection non-linear relationship. As a comparison, 8 fully processed BiCMOS wafers from the same lot are thinned to different thicknesses ranging from 50 μm to 600 μm for bow measurement. After taking the gravity-induced deflection and grinding effect into consideration, the wafer bow predicted by the finite element model deviates less than 20% from the measurement results for all the thickness values.

(18) Terahertz Subwavelength Sensing with Bio-Functionalized Germanium Fano-Resonators
C.A. Chavarin, E. Hardt, O. Skibitzki, T. Voss, M.H. Eissa, D. Spirito, G. Capellini, L. Baldassarre, J. Flesch, J. Piehler, C. You, S. Gruessing, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann
Frequenz: Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications 76(11-12), 639 (2022)
DOI: 10.1515/freq-2022-0078, (DFG-ESSENCE)
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) based on highly doped semiconductors microstructures, such as antennas, can be engineered to exhibit resonant features at THz frequencies. In this work, we demonstrate plasmonic antennas with increased quality factor LSPRs from Fano coupling to dark modes. We also discuss the advances in the biofunctionalization of n-doped Ge antennas for specific protein immobilization and cell interfacing. Finally, albumin biolayers with thickness of a few hundred nanometers are used to demonstrate the performance of the fano-coupled n-Ge antennas as sensors. A resonant change of over 10% in transmission, due to the presence of the biolayer, can be detected within a bandwidth of only 20 GHz.

(19) Microscopic Simulation of the RF Performance of SiGe HBTs with Additional Uniaxial Mechanical Stress
O. Dieball, H. Rücker, B. Heinemann, C. Jungemann
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 69(9), 4803 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2022.3189322, (SG13G3)
A very detailed investigation of high-speed silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) showed an underestimation of the measured peak cutoff frequency by simulations with a hydrodynamic (HD) model. It was speculated that this might be due to a breakdown of the HD approximation or unknown additional mechanical stress. We repeated those simulations with the more fundamental Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on the same device model (doping profiles, 2-D geometry, parasitics, and so on) and obtained almost similar results showing that this failure was not due to a breakdown of the HD approximation. Since additional uniaxial stress along the direction of the lateral base has been shown to increase the cutoff frequency, we investigated this effect. We found by 2-D device simulations that the increase in the peak cutoff frequency is rather small, and at high stress levels, it even decreases, if the uniaxial stress is applied homogenously. This is due to the reduction of the conductivity of the highly doped collector layer by the stress. If the stress is limited to the intrinsic transistor, the increase in the cutoff frequency is monotonic with growing stress. On the other hand, the collector current for a given base–emitter voltage also increases with stress leading to an overestimation of the collector current compared with the measurements. If this increase is corrected by a slight decrease in the germanium profile, the gain in the peak cutoff frequency is lost. Thus, the underestimation of the peak cutoff frequency cannot be explained by an additional homogeneous uniaxial stress in the intrinsic transistor.

(20) Etch Mechanism of an Al2O3 Hard Mask in the Bosch Process
M. Drost, St. Marschmeyer, M. Fraschke, O. Fursenko, F. Bärwolf, I. Costina, M.K. Mahadevaiah, M. Lisker
Micro and Nano Engineering 14, 100102 (2022)
DOI: 10.1016/j.mne.2021.100102
The etching of high aspect ratio structures in silicon via the Bosch process is essential in modern technologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and through-silicon vias (TSV) fabrication. The process can be very demanding on the mask selectivity due to long etching times, and it has been shown that an Al2O3 hard mask is very suitable in this regard, as it offers significantly higher selectivity compared to the conventional SiO2 or resist masks. In this work, we employ a combination of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling to scrutinize the Al2O3 mask etching mechanism and therefore the origin of the extraordinary high selectivity. We demonstrate that by increasing the passivation step time, a thicker fluorocarbon polymer layer is formed on the Al2O3, and Al2O3 is then removed with a minuscule average etch rate of ~0.01 nm/min. XPS depth profiling reveals that during Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) using the Bosch process, an AlFx layer is formed between the polymer and Al2O3. As AlFx is non-volatile, it requires sputtering to be removed. If the polymer layer is thick enough to attenuate the incoming ions such that their energy is not sufficient to lead to desorption of AlFx, such as when using a longer passivation time, the mask is not eroded. By investigating the surface after different amounts of DRIE cycles, we also obtained information about the formation rate of AlFx and the changes in the Al2O3 and polymer thicknesses over the course of a DRIE process. These findings further expand the knowledge of DRIE and can help process engineers to tailor the processes accordingly.

(21) A 56-Gb/s Optical Receiver with 2.08-µA Noise Monolithically Integrated into a 250-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
G. Dziallas, A. Fatemi, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann, A. Malignaggi, G. Kahmen
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 70(1), 392 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2021.3104838
In this article, a monolithically integrated single-polarization optical receiver with automatic gain control is presented that shows state-of-the-art performance in terms of bandwidth (BW) and noise. A low-noise technique is applied in a monolithically integrated optical receiver featuring automatic gain and dc-offset cancellation control loops. The electronic and photonic components are fabricated on the same silicon substrate using IHP's 0.25-μm SiGe BiCMOS EPIC technology. The optical receiver features a high tunable transimpedance gain of 66 dBΩ at a large optoelectrical BW of 34 GHz and an input-referred noise current of 2.08 μA rms while consuming only 205 mW of power.

(22) Fabrication of Highly N-Type-Doped Germanium Nanowires and Ohmic Contacts using Ion Implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing
A. Echresh, S. Prucnal, Z. Li, R. Hübner, F. Ganss, O. Steuer, F. Bärwolf, S.J. Ghamsari, M. Helm, S. Zhou, A. Erbe, L. Rebohle, Y.M. Georgiev
ACS Applied Electronic Materials 4(11), 5256 (2022)
DOI: 10.1021/acsaelm.2c00952, (SiGeSn NanoFETs)
Accurate control of doping and fabrication of metal contacts on n-type germanium nanowires (GeNWs) with low resistance and linear characteristics remain a major challenge in germanium-based nanoelectronics. Here, we present a combined approach to fabricate Ohmic contacts on n-type-doped GeNWs. Phosphorus (P) implantation, followed by millisecond rear-side flash lamp annealing, was used to produce highly n-type-doped Ge with an electron concentration in the order of 1019–1020 cm–3. Electron beam lithography, inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, and nickel (Ni) deposition were used to fabricate GeNW-based devices with a symmetric Hall bar configuration, which allows detailed electrical characterization of the NWs. Afterward, rear-side flash lamp annealing was applied to form Ni germanide at the Ni-GeNW contacts to reduce the Schottky barrier height. The two-probe current–voltage measurements on n-type-doped GeNWs exhibit linear Ohmic behavior. Also, the size-dependent electrical measurements showed that carrier scattering near the NW surfaces and reduction of the effective NW cross-section dominate the charge transport in the GeNWs.

(23) 220-320-GHz J-Band 4-Way Power Amplifier in Advanced 130-nm BiCMOS Technology
M.H. Eissa, G. Fischer, T. Mausolf, H. Rücker, A. Malignaggi, G. Kahmen
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 32(11), 1335 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2022.3181407, (iCampus)
A power combined wideband power amplifier (PA) covering the J -band (220–320 GHz) is presented in 130-nm BiCMOS technology. The input power is split by two cascaded 1-to-2 power splitters with amplification stages in-between. The four split signals drive four output stages, which have their outputs combined within a 4-way zero-degree combiner. The splitting and combining networks also incorporate impedance matching. After de-embedding the I/O pads and baluns of 2 dB loss at each side, the PA achieves a gain of 20 dB at the middle of the band and a minimum gain of 17 dB at 320 GHz with I/O return losses below − 5 dB. The PA records a saturated output power ranging from 9.5 to 14.5 dBm across the J -band. It consumes 710 mW from a 3 V supply which corresponds to a drain efficiency ( ηd ) of 3.15% at 270 GHz. The presented PA achieves twice better bandwidth with 1.5 times better ηd than the state-of-the-art silicon-based amplifiers above 200 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first PA covering the whole J -band in silicon technologies.

(24) 220-320-GHz J-Band 4-Way Power Amplifier in Advanced 130-nm BiCMOS Technology
M.H. Eissa, G. Fischer, T. Mausolf, H. Rücker, A. Malignaggi, G. Kahmen
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 32(11), 1335 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2022.3181407, (T-KOS)
A power combined wideband power amplifier (PA) covering the J -band (220–320 GHz) is presented in 130-nm BiCMOS technology. The input power is split by two cascaded 1-to-2 power splitters with amplification stages in-between. The four split signals drive four output stages, which have their outputs combined within a 4-way zero-degree combiner. The splitting and combining networks also incorporate impedance matching. After de-embedding the I/O pads and baluns of 2 dB loss at each side, the PA achieves a gain of 20 dB at the middle of the band and a minimum gain of 17 dB at 320 GHz with I/O return losses below − 5 dB. The PA records a saturated output power ranging from 9.5 to 14.5 dBm across the J -band. It consumes 710 mW from a 3 V supply which corresponds to a drain efficiency ( ηd ) of 3.15% at 270 GHz. The presented PA achieves twice better bandwidth with 1.5 times better ηd than the state-of-the-art silicon-based amplifiers above 200 GHz. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first PA covering the whole J -band in silicon technologies.

(25) Reliable Metal-Graphene Contact Formation Process Flows in a CMOS-Compatible Environment
M. Elviretti, M. Lisker, R. Lukose, M. Lukosius, F. Akhtar, A. Mai
Nanoscale Advances 4(20), 4373 (2022)
DOI: 10.1039/D2NA00351A, (GIMMIK)
The possibility of exploiting the enormous potential of graphene for microelectronics and photonics passes through the optimization of the graphene-metal contact. Achieving low contact resistance is essential for consideration of graphene as a candidate material for electronic and photonic devices. This work has been carried out in an 8” wafer pilot-line for the integration of graphene into a CMOS environment. The main focus is to study the impact of the patterning of graphene and the passivation on metal-graphene contact resistance. The latter is measured by means of transmission line measurement (TLM) with several contact designs. The presented approaches enable reproducible formation of contact resistivity as low as 660Ωμm with sheet resistance of 1.8 kΩ/ by proper graphene patterning, passivation of the channel and a post-processing treatment such as annealing.

(26) Dielectrophoretic Separation of Blood Cells
M. Emmerich, A.-S. Sinnigen, P. Neubauer, M. Birkholz
Biomedical Microdevices 24, 30 (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/s10544-022-00623-1, (Bioelectronics)
Microfluidic dielectrophoretic (DEP) devices enable the label-free separation and isolation of cells based on differences in their electrophysiological properties. The technique can serve as a tool in clinical diagnostics and medical research as it facilitates the analysis of patient-specific blood composition and the detection and isolation of pathogenic cells like circulating tumor cells or malaria-infected erythrocytes. This review compares different microfluidic DEP devices to separate platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes including their cellular subclasses. An overview and experimental setups of different microfluidic DEP devices for the separation, trapping and isolation or purification of blood cells are detailed with respect to their technical design, electrode configuration, sample preparation, applied voltage and created DEP field based and related to separation efficiency. The technique holds the promise that results can quickly be attained in clinical and ambulant settings. In particular, point-of-care-testing scenarios are favored by the extensive miniaturization, which would be enabled by microelectronical integration of DEP devices.

(27) Towards the Growth of hBN on Ge/Si Substrates by CVD
M. Franck, J. Dabrowski, M.A. Schubert, Ch. Wenger, M. Lukosius
Proc. Graphene Conference 2022, 164 (2022)
(2DHetero)

(28) Towards the Growth of Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Ge(001)/Si Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition
M. Franck, J. Dabrowski, M.A. Schubert, Ch. Wenger, M. Lukosius
Nanomaterials 12(19), 3260 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/nano12193260, (2DHetero)
The growth of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on epitaxial Ge(001)/Si substrates via high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition from borazine is investigated for the first time in a systematic manner. The influences of the process pressure and growth temperature in the range of 10−7–10−3 mbar and 900–980 °C, respectively, are evaluated with respect to morphology, growth rate, and crystalline quality of the hBN films. At 900 °C, nanocrystalline hBN films with a lateral crystallite size of ~2–3 nm are obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms an atomic N:B ratio of 1 ± 0.1. A three-dimensional growth mode is observed by atomic force microscopy. Increasing the process pressure in the reactor mainly affects the growth rate, with only slight effects on crystalline quality and none on the principle growth mode. Growth of hBN at 980 °C increases the average crystallite size and leads to the formation of 3–10 well-oriented, vertically stacked layers of hBN on the Ge surface. Exploratory ab initio density functional theory simulations indicate that hBN edges are saturated by hydrogen, and it is proposed that partial de-saturation by H radicals produced on hot parts of the set-up is responsible for the growth.

(29) Penalties From 2D Grating Coupler Induced Polarization Crosstalk in Silicon Photonic Coherent Transceivers
G. Georgieva, M. Sena, P.M. Seiler, K. Petermann, J. Fischer, L. Zimmermann
IEEE Photonics Journal 14(5), 6653011 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2022.3206619
Silicon photonic two-dimensional grating couplers for C- and O-band dual-polarization coherent transceivers are analyzed with respect to their polarization splitting/combining performance. Due to scattered light in the grating's plane, a linear cross-polarization results. The latter is responsible for a limited polarization split ratio and a polarizations' non-orthogonality. The impact of these two quantities is evaluated by system-level simulations with regard to OSNR penalties in coherent systems. For both C- and O-band, a design modification for reduced penalties is proposed.

(30) Dual-Polarization Multiplexing Amorphous Si:H Grating Couplers for Silicon Photonic Transmitters in the Photonic BiCMOS Backend of Line
G. Georgieva, Ch. Mai, P.M. Seiler, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
Frontiers of Optoelectronics 15, 13 (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/s12200-022-00005-8, (DFG EPIDAC)
In this paper, we report on polarization combining two-dimensional grating couplers (2D GCs) on amorphous Si:H, fabricated in the backend of line of a photonic BiCMOS platform. The 2D GCs can be used as an interface of a hybrid silicon photonic coherent transmitter, which can be implemented on bulk Si wafers. The fabricated 2D GCs operate in the telecom C-band and show an experimental coupling efficiency of − 5 dB with a wafer variation of ± 1.2 dB. Possibilities for efficiency enhancement and improved performance stability in future design generations are outlined and extension toward O-band devices is also investigated.

(31) Dual-Polarization Multiplexing Amorphous Si:H Grating Couplers for Silicon Photonic Transmitters in the Photonic BiCMOS Backend of Line
G. Georgieva, Ch. Mai, P.M. Seiler, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
Frontiers of Optoelectronics 15, 13 (2022)
DOI: 10.1007/s12200-022-00005-8, (PEARLS)
In this paper, we report on polarization combining two-dimensional grating couplers (2D GCs) on amorphous Si:H, fabricated in the backend of line of a photonic BiCMOS platform. The 2D GCs can be used as an interface of a hybrid silicon photonic coherent transmitter, which can be implemented on bulk Si wafers. The fabricated 2D GCs operate in the telecom C-band and show an experimental coupling efficiency of − 5 dB with a wafer variation of ± 1.2 dB. Possibilities for efficiency enhancement and improved performance stability in future design generations are outlined and extension toward O-band devices is also investigated.

(32) A Polarization-Independent Zig-Zag-Tilted Ovals Grating Coupler in a 0.25 µm Photonic BiCMOS Technology
G. Georgieva, P.M. Seiler, Ch. Mai, A. Peczek, K. Petermann, L. Zimmermann
Proc. European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2022), Mo3F.5 (2022)

(33) Monolithic Integration of a Wafer-Level Thin-Film Encapsulated mm-Wave RF-MEMS Switch in BEOL of a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
A. Göritz, S. Tolunay Wipf, M. Drost, M. Lisker, Ch. Wipf, J. Drews, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology 12(6), 921 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2022.3172502, (Nanotec)
One of the most significant challenge for the fabrication of any Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) device is the low cost and high throughput packaging of the device to protect from the environmental particles, moisture and contaminations. In this work, a RF-MEMS switch for mm-wave applications is monolithically integrated into the aluminum based Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL) of a 130 nm BiCMOS technology by wafer-level thin-film encapsulation (WLE). Both wet and vapor release techniques are developed and demonstrated for the release of the MEMS device, prior to wafer-level encapsulation packaging. The final device encapsulation as wafer-level packaging is realized with a 3 µm thick metal-grid realized in a stack of Ti/TiN/AlCu/Ti/TiN layers. Finally, a silicon dioxide deposition process with a high deposition rate is applied for the full encapsulation of the release holes. The impact of the encapsulation on the RF-MEMS switch performance is evaluated by low frequency C-V and high frequency S-parameter measurements at D-Band. The results indicate the full function of the developed encapsulation technique without a significant performance drop. The developed encapsulation technique does not require an extra mask and it is applied on a full 8-inch wafer-level process thus, provides a low cost and high throughput solution for RF-MEMS device encapsulation and packaging.

(34) Tungsten Grid Enhanced Thin-Film Wafer-Level Encapsulation for Monolithically Integrated D-Band RFMEMS Switches in a 130 nm BiCMOS Technology
A. Göritz, S. Tolunay Wipf, M. Drost, M. Wietstruck, M. Fraschke, A. Krüger, M. Lisker
Proc. 24th Design, Test, Integration & Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP 2022), 22 (2022)

(35) Monolithic Integration of a Wafer-Level Thin-Film Encapsulated mm-Wave RF-MEMS Switch in BEOL of a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
A. Göritz, S. Tolunay Wipf, M. Drost, M. Lisker, Ch. Wipf, J. Drews, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology 12(6), 921 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2022.3172502, (Flexwin)
One of the most significant challenge for the fabrication of any Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) device is the low cost and high throughput packaging of the device to protect from the environmental particles, moisture and contaminations. In this work, a RF-MEMS switch for mm-wave applications is monolithically integrated into the aluminum based Back-End-Of-Line (BEOL) of a 130 nm BiCMOS technology by wafer-level thin-film encapsulation (WLE). Both wet and vapor release techniques are developed and demonstrated for the release of the MEMS device, prior to wafer-level encapsulation packaging. The final device encapsulation as wafer-level packaging is realized with a 3 µm thick metal-grid realized in a stack of Ti/TiN/AlCu/Ti/TiN layers. Finally, a silicon dioxide deposition process with a high deposition rate is applied for the full encapsulation of the release holes. The impact of the encapsulation on the RF-MEMS switch performance is evaluated by low frequency C-V and high frequency S-parameter measurements at D-Band. The results indicate the full function of the developed encapsulation technique without a significant performance drop. The developed encapsulation technique does not require an extra mask and it is applied on a full 8-inch wafer-level process thus, provides a low cost and high throughput solution for RF-MEMS device encapsulation and packaging.

(36) Atomic Layer Deposition of the Conductive Delafossite PtCoO2
D. Hagen, J. Yoon, H. Zhang, B. Kalkofen, M. Slinskas, F. Börrnert, H. Han, S. Parkin
Advanced Materials Interfaces 9(12), 2200013 (2022)
DOI: 10.1002/admi.202200013
The first atomic layer deposition process for a ternary oxide is reported, which contains a metal of the platinum group, the delafossite PtCoO2. The deposition with the precursors trimethyl-Pt-methylcyclopentadienyl, Co-bis(N-t-butyl-N′-ethylpropanimidamidate), and oxygen plasma results in a process with a nearly constant growth rate and stoichiometric composition over a wide temperature window from 100 to 320 °C. Annealing of the as-deposited amorphous films in an oxygen atmosphere in a temperature window from 700 to 800 °C leads to the formation of the delafossite phase. Very thin films show a pronounced preferred orientation with the Pt sheets being almost parallel to the substrate surface while arbitrary orientation is observed for thicker films. The conformal coating of narrow trenches highlights the potential of this atomic-layer-deposition process. Moreover, heterostructures with magnetic films are fabricated to demonstrate the potential of PtCoO2 for spintronic applications.

(37) Ultra-Broadband Optical Wavelength-Conversion using Nonlinear Multi-Modal Optical Waveguides
N. Hanik, T. Kernetzky, Y. Jia, U. Höfler, R. Freund, C. Schubert, I. Sackey, G. Ronniger, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 13th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP 2022), 832 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/CSNDSP54353.2022.9908054

(38) Towards a Fully Integrated sub-THz Microfluidic Sensor Platform for Dielectric Spectroscopy
C. Heine, E.C. Durmaz, D. Wang, Z, Cao, M. Wietstruck, B. Tillack, D. Kissinger
Frequenz: Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications 76(11-12), 685 (2022)

(39) Dielectrophoresis: An Approach to Increase Sensitivity, Reduce Response Time and to Suppress Nonspecific Binding in Biosensors?
A. Henriksson, P. Neubauer, M. Birkholz
Biosensors (MDPI) 12(10), 784 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/bios12100784, (Bioelectronics)
The performance of receptor-based biosensors is often limited by either diffusion of the analyte causing unreasonable long assay times or a lack of specificity limiting the sensitivity due to the noise of nonspecific binding. Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics and its effect on biosensing is an increasing field of research dedicated to address this issue and can improve mass transfer of the analyte by electrothermal effects, electroosmosis or dielectrophoresis (DEP). Accordingly, several works have shown improved sensitivity and lowered assay times by order of magnitude thanks to the improved mass transfer with these techniques. To realize high sensitivity in real samples with realistic sample matrix avoiding nonspecific binding is critical and the improved mass transfer should ideally be specific to the target analyte. In this paper we cover recent approaches to combine biosensors with DEP, which is the AC kinetic approach with the highest selectivity.
We conclude that for many applications the approach could be beneficial, especially if more work is dedicated to minimizing nonspecific bindings, for which DEP offers again the technically most feasible perspectives.

(40) A Scalable & Comprehensive Resilience Concept Against Optical & Physical IC Back Side Attacks
N. Herfurth, E. Amini, M. Lisker, J.-P. Seifert, C. Boit
Proc. 29th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/IPFA55383.2022.9915714, (Velektronik)

(41) A Guide to Accurate System Calibration and Data Extraction to Increase Significance of Spectral Photon Emission Microscopy Measurements
N. Herfurth, C. Boit
Electronic Device Failure Analysis 24(4), 4 (2022)
DOI: 10.31399/asm.edfa.2022-4.p004
This article presents and evaluates a calibration method that significantly improves the spectral information that can be extracted from photon emission signals obtained from semiconductor devices. Step-by-step instructions are given for calibrating photon emission microscopes for specific measurements such as device parameters and material band gap. The article also discusses the types of errors that can occur during calibration. Although the procedure presented is used on InGaAs sensors, it applies to all common photon emission detectors.

(42) Bendable 190-GHz Transmitter on 20-μm Ultra-Thin SiGe BiCMOS
C. Hoyer, L. Steinweg, Z. Cao, V. Riess, L. Li, F. Protze, C. Carta, J. Wagner, M. Kaynak, B. Tillack, F. Ellinger
IEEE Journal on Flexible Electronics (J-FLEX) 1(2), 122 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/JFLEX.2022.3167372, (Bend-IT)
This research work presents the fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin fully integrated transmitter circuits. By moving bendable technology into the 190-GHz band, it is possible to implement complete transmitter systems or sensor nodes, including on-chip antennas, on a single chip without the need for surrounding circuits, thus increasing system performance and reducing cost. To fabricate such thin chips, a standard 700- μm fully processed SiGe BiCMOS wafer was thinned to a thickness of only 20 μm making the silicon bendable. The transmitter, which consists of a voltage-controlled oscillator, a power amplifier, and an on-chip antenna, was characterized by comparing thinned and standard thickness samples. Therefore, a maximum relative deviation of the oscillator frequency tuning of less than 2% was found. The oscillation frequency of the chip is measured in a bent state, resulting in a maximum relative deviation for bend radii of up to 4 mm of only 1%. Considering a maximum output power deviation of 4.6 dB, the presented approach proves to be feasible for the design of flexible high-performance integrated systems. This enables novel applications in the field of medicine, wearable electronics, and the Internet of Things.

(43) Efficiency and Time Resolution of Monolithic Silicon Pixel Detectors in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
G. Iacobucci, L. Paolozzi, P. Valerio, T. Moretti, F. Cadoux, R. Cardarelli, R.Cardella, S. Debieux, Y. Favre, D. Ferrere, S. Gonzalez-Sevilla, Y. Gurimskaya, R. Kotitsa, C. Magliocca, F. Martinelli, M. Milanesio, M. Munker, M. Nessi, A. Picardi, J. Saidi, H. Rücker, V. Vicente Barreto Pinto, S. Zambito
Journal of Instrumentation 17, P02019 (2022)
DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/02/P02019, (SG13G3)
A monolithic silicon pixel detector prototype has been produced in the SiGe BiCMOS SG13G2 130 nm node technology by IHP. The ASIC contains a matrix of hexagonal pixels with pitch of approximately 100 μm. Three analog pixels were calibrated in laboratory with radioactive sources and tested in a 180 GeV/c pion beamline at the CERN SPS. A detection efficiency of (99.9-0.2+0.1)% was measured together with a time resolution of (36.4 ± 0.8) ps at the highest preamplifier bias current working point of 150 μA and at a sensor bias voltage of 160 V. The ASIC was also characterized at lower bias voltage and preamplifier current.

(44) Testbeam Results of the Picosecond Avalanche Detector Proof-Of-Concept Prototype
G. Iacobucci, S. Zambito, M. Milanesio, T. Moretti, J. Saidl, L. Paolozzi, M. Munker, R. Cardella, F. Martinelli, A. Picardi, H. Rücker, A. Trusch, P. Valerio, F. Cadoux, R. Cardarelli, S. Débieux, Y. Favre, C.A. Fenoglio, D. Ferrere, S. Gonzalez-Sevilla, Y. Gurimskaya, R. Kotitsa, C. Magliocca, M. Nessi, A. Pizarro_Medina, J. Sabater lglesias, M.V. Barreto Pinto
Journal of Instrumentation 17, P10040 (2022)
DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/17/10/P10040
The proof-of-concept prototype of the Picosecond Avalanche Detector, a multi-PN junction monolithic silicon detector with continuous gain layer deep in the sensor depleted region, was tested with a beam of 180 GeV pions at the CERN SPS. The prototype features low noise and fast SiGe BiCMOS frontend electronics and hexagonal pixels with 100 μm pitch. At a sensor bias voltage of 125 V, the detector provides full efficiency and average time resolution of 30, 25 and 17 ps in the overall pixel area for a power consumption of 0.4, 0.9 and 2.7 W/cm2, respectively. In this first prototype the time resolution depends significantly on the distance from the center of the pixel, varying at the highest power consumption measured between 13 ps at the center of the pixel and 25 ps in the inter-pixel region.

(45) Effects of Temperature and Doping Concentration on the Piezoresistive Property of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Film
N. Inomata, T. Usuda, Y. Yamamoto, M.H. Zoellner, I. Costina, T. Ono
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 346, 113823 (2022)
DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2022.113823
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a phase transition material whose physical and electrical properties, such as resistance, significantly change at the critical temperature. Specifically, the piezoresistive property and, thus, the gauge factor may change considerably in VO2 thin films; however, studies focusing on this phenomenon remain limited. This study evaluated the gauge factor of VO2 thin films by varying the temperature and W doping concentration. VO2 films were deposited on a conventional Si wafer using the sol-gel method, followed by an annealing process. Samples were produced without W doping and with 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 at% doping concentrations. Phase transitions were observed via resistance changes of one order of magnitude near-critical temperatures of ∼60 °C for no doping, ∼50 °C for 0.3 at%, and ∼30 °C for 0.6 at%; the sample with a 1.0 at% concentration exhibited a linear resistance change, resulting in no phase transition. The X-ray diffraction pattern shifted with the temperature change and showed critical temperatures similar to those obtained from the resistance measurements. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the gauge factor was experimentally obtained based on the carrier concentration and mobility. The gauge factors obtained experimentally and those calculated from the carrier concentration and mobility were examined. A gauge factor of 350 was obtained, much larger than that of the conventionally used Si, near the critical temperature at each doping concentration. The feasibility of VO2 thin films as piezoresistive materials was thereby demonstrated.

(46) Monolithically Integrated Silicon Photodiodes for Terahertz Electronic-Photonic Integrated Systems
V.S. Jagtap, H. Rücker, B. Heinemann, J. Grzyp, U.R. Pfeiffer
Proc. 47th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz50927.2022.9895657, (DFG-Dotseven2IC)

(47) Toward Controlling the Al2O3/ZnO Interface Properties by In-Situ ALD Preparation
C. Janowitz, A. Mahmoodinezhad, M. Kot, C. Morales, F. Naumann, P. Plate, M.H. Zoellner, F. Bärwolf, D. Stolarek, Ch. Wenger, K. Henkel, J.I. Flege
Dalton Transactions 51(24), 9291 (2022)
DOI: 10.1039/d1dt04008a
An Al2O3/ZnO heterojunction was grown on a Si single crystal substrate by subsequent thermal and plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) in-situ. The band offsets of the heterointerface were then studied by consecutive removal of the layers by argon sputtering, followed by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of Al2O3 are found to be 1.1 eV below and 2.3 eV above that of ZnO, resulting in a type-I staggered heterojunction. An apparent reduction of ZnO to elemental Zn in the interface region was detected in the Zn 2p core level and Zn L3MM Auger spectra. This suggests an interface formation different from previous models. The reduction of ZnO to Zn at the interface region accompanied by the creation of oxygen vacancies in the ZnO results in an upward band bending at the interface. Therefore, this study suggests that interfacial properties as the band bending as well as the valence and conduction band offsets should be in-situ controllable to a certain extent by careful selection of the process parameters.

(48) Thermal Impedance of SiGe HBTs: Characterization and Modeling
X. Jin, G. Liang, Y. Zimmermann, G.G. Fischer, C. Weimer, M. Krattenmacher, Y. Zhang, M. Schröter
Proc. IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium (BCICTS 2022), 90 (2022)

(49) SiGe BiCMOS as Enabling Technology for Next Generation RF & THz Systems
G. Kahmen
Proc. 16th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2021), abstr. book 21 (2022)

(50) SiGe BiCMOS Technology with Advanced Integration Solutions for for mm-Wave and THz Applications
M. Kaynak
Proc. IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/ETS54262.2022.9810371

(51) Integrated Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Analyzers for Biomedical Applications
D. Kissinger, M. Kaynak, A. Mai
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 70(11), 5141 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2022.3185053
This invited paper reviews the progress of silicon-based integrated analyzers for biomedical applications over the last two decades. Focus is set on various integrated circuit realizations in the millimeter-wave range from 30 GHz and at the terahertz frequencies of above 300 GHz. This article discusses high-frequency architectures and concrete implementations of both narrowband as well as broadband integrated readout circuits, including their use in miniaturized sensor solutions. A variety of circuits ranging from low-power sensing oscillators to highly integrated broadband vector network analyzers (VNAs), and example realizations of millimeter-wave cardiovascular sensors and implants to THz microfluidic labs-on-chip and exhaled human breath analyzers are recapitulated. This article closes with an outlook on emerging fields of research for future advancement of such biomedical sensors toward reliable and specific systems.

(52) Methoden zur defektfreien Zerspanung von Silizium
N. Kroh, J. Borngräber, F. Sammler
wt Werkstattstechnik online 112(1-2), 34 (2022)
DOI: 10.37544/1436-4980
The material silicon is known as brittle, hard and difficult to machine. Nevertheless, it also exhibits unique properties that only appear under high pressure and which can simplify mechanical machining. By adjusting cutting parameters and tool paths to these properties, the crystal planes of the silicon are separated in a ductile/plastic mode instead of fracturing, which can allow surfaces with extremely high surface quality to be generated by machining. In the research presented here, process parameters for ductile machining were anaylsed and the use of trochoidal milling tested for this application.

(53) Wafer Edge Planarization after Wafer Bonding
A. Krüger, M. Lisker, A. Göritz, C. Baristiran Kaynak, M. Kaynak
Proc. International Conference on Planarization Technology (ICPT 2022), (2022)

(54) The Using of a Coating Thickness Gauge to Get Information about the Polishing Pad Profile
A. Krüger, M. Lisker
Proc. International Conference on Planarization Technology (ICPT 2022), (2022)

(55) Role of Critical Thickness in SiGe/Si/SiGe Heterostructure Design for Qubits
Y. Liu, K.-P. Gradwohl, C.-H. Lu, T. Remmele, Y. Yamamoto, M.H. Zoellner, T. Schroeder, T. Boeck, H. Amari, C. Richter, M. Albrecht
Journal of Applied Physics 132(8), 085302 (2022)
(SiGeQuant)
We study the critical thickness for the plastic relaxation of the Si quantum well layer embedded in a SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostructure for qubits by plan-view transmission electron microscopy and electron channelling contrast imaging. Misfit dislocation segments form due to the glide of pre-existing threading dislocations at the interface of the Si quantum
well layer beyond a critical thickness given by the Matthews-Blakeslee criterion. Misfit dislocations are mostly 60° dislocations that are split into partials due to the tensile strain field of the Si quantum well layer. By reducing the quantum well thickness below critical thickness, misfit dislocations can be suppressed. A simple model is applied to simulate the misfit dislocation formation and blocking process. We discuss consequences of our findings for the layer stack design of SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostructures for usage in quantum computing hardware.

(56) Viewing SiGe Heterostructure for Qubits with Dislocation Theory
Y. Liu, Y. Liu, K.-P. Gradwohl, C.H- Lu, Y. Yamamoto, C. Corley-Wiciak, T. Remmele, T. Teubner, C. Richter, M. Albrecht, T. Boeck
ECS Transactions 109(4), 189 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0189ecst, (QUASAR)
Strained isotopically enriched 28Si strained layers in SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostrustructures is an excellent material platform for electron spin qubits. In this work, we report the fabrication of 28SiGe/28Si/28SiGe heterostructures for qubit devices by a hybrid MBE/CVD growth, where the thick relaxed SiGe buffer is realized by a reduced-pressure CVD and the 28SiGe/28Si/28SiGe stack is grown by an MBE. Here, we achieve a fully strained 28Si layer in such heterostructure with a 29Si concentration as low as 200 ppm within the MBE grown layers. It was possible to conclude that 29Si primarily originates from the residual natural Si vapour in the MBE chamber. Furthermore, we also present our studies about the growth temperature effect on the misfit dislocation formation in this heterostructure. It was possible to show that at a low MBE growth temperature, such as 350°C, the misfit dislocation formation is significantly suppressed.

(57) Viewing SiGe Heterostructure for Qubits with Dislocation Theory
Y. Liu, Y. Liu, K.-P. Gradwohl, C.H- Lu, Y. Yamamoto, C. Corley-Wiciak, T. Remmele, T. Teubner, C. Richter, M. Albrecht, T. Boeck
ECS Transactions 109(4), 189 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0189ecst, (SiGeQuant)
Strained isotopically enriched 28Si strained layers in SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostrustructures is an excellent material platform for electron spin qubits. In this work, we report the fabrication of 28SiGe/28Si/28SiGe heterostructures for qubit devices by a hybrid MBE/CVD growth, where the thick relaxed SiGe buffer is realized by a reduced-pressure CVD and the 28SiGe/28Si/28SiGe stack is grown by an MBE. Here, we achieve a fully strained 28Si layer in such heterostructure with a 29Si concentration as low as 200 ppm within the MBE grown layers. It was possible to conclude that 29Si primarily originates from the residual natural Si vapour in the MBE chamber. Furthermore, we also present our studies about the growth temperature effect on the misfit dislocation formation in this heterostructure. It was possible to show that at a low MBE growth temperature, such as 350°C, the misfit dislocation formation is significantly suppressed.

(58) Graphene Research in 200 mm CMOS Pilot Line
M. Lukosius, R. Lukose, M. Lisker, G. Luongo, M. Elviretti, A. Mai, Ch. Wenger
Proc. 45th International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO 2022), 113 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/MIPRO55190.2022.9803362, (2D-EPL)

(59) Graphene Research in 200 mm CMOS Pilot Line
M. Lukosius, R. Lukose, M. Lisker, G. Luongo, M. Elviretti, A. Mai, Ch. Wenger
Proc. 45th International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology (MIPRO 2022), 113 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/MIPRO55190.2022.9803362, (GIMMIK)

(60) Modulating the Filamentary-Based Resistive Switching Properties of HfO2 Memristive Devices by Adding Al2O3 Layers
M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, M. Lisker, M.A. Schubert, E. Perez-Bosch Quesada, Ch. Wenger, A. Mai
Electronics (MDPI) 11(10), 1540 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/electronics11101540, (Neutronics)
The resistive switching properties of HfO2 based 1T-1R memristive devices are electrically modified by adding ultra-thin layers of Al2O3 into the memristive device. Three different types of memristive stacks are fabricated in the 130 nm CMOS technology of IHP. The switching properties of the memristive devices are discussed with respect to forming voltages, low resistance state and high resistance state characteristics and their variabilities. The experimental I–V characteristics of set and reset operations are evaluated by using the quantum point contact model. The properties of the conduction filament in the on and off states of the memristive devices are discussed with respect to the model parameters obtained from the QPC fit.

(61) Modulating the Filamentary-Based Resistive Switching Properties of HfO2 Memristive Devices by Adding Al2O3 Layers
M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, M. Lisker, M.A. Schubert, E. Perez-Bosch Quesada, Ch. Wenger, A. Mai
Electronics (MDPI) 11(10), 1540 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/electronics11101540, (NeuroMem)
The resistive switching properties of HfO2 based 1T-1R memristive devices are electrically modified by adding ultra-thin layers of Al2O3 into the memristive device. Three different types of memristive stacks are fabricated in the 130 nm CMOS technology of IHP. The switching properties of the memristive devices are discussed with respect to forming voltages, low resistance state and high resistance state characteristics and their variabilities. The experimental I–V characteristics of set and reset operations are evaluated by using the quantum point contact model. The properties of the conduction filament in the on and off states of the memristive devices are discussed with respect to the model parameters obtained from the QPC fit.

(62) Modulating the Filamentary-Based Resistive Switching Properties of HfO2 Memristive Devices by Adding Al2O3 Layers
M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, M. Lisker, M.A. Schubert, E. Perez-Bosch Quesada, Ch. Wenger, A. Mai
Electronics (MDPI) 11(10), 1540 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/electronics11101540, (FMD)
The resistive switching properties of HfO2 based 1T-1R memristive devices are electrically modified by adding ultra-thin layers of Al2O3 into the memristive device. Three different types of memristive stacks are fabricated in the 130 nm CMOS technology of IHP. The switching properties of the memristive devices are discussed with respect to forming voltages, low resistance state and high resistance state characteristics and their variabilities. The experimental I–V characteristics of set and reset operations are evaluated by using the quantum point contact model. The properties of the conduction filament in the on and off states of the memristive devices are discussed with respect to the model parameters obtained from the QPC fit.

(63) Integration Aspects of Plasmonic TiN-based Nano-Hole-Arrays on Ge Photodetectors in a 200mm Wafer CMOS Compatible Silicon Technology
Ch. Mai, St. Marschmeyer, A. Peczek, A. Kroh, J. Jose, S. Reiter, I.A. Fischer, Ch. Wenger, A. Mai
ECS Transactions 109(49, 35 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0035ecst, (iCampus)
In this work we present the progress in regard to the integration of a surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor into a CMOS compatible 200 mm wafer silicon-based technology. Our approach pursues the combination of germanium photodetectors with metallic nanohole arrays. The paper is focused on the technology development to fabricate large area photodetectors based on a modern design concept. In a first iteration we achieved a leakage current density of 82 mA/cm2 at reverse bias of 0.5 V and a maximum optical responsivity of 0.103 A/W measured with TE polarized light at λ = 1310 nm and a reversed bias of 1 V. For the realization of nanohole arrays we used thin Titanium nitride (TiN) layers deposited by a sputtering process. We were able to produce very homogenous TiN layers with a thickness deviation of around 10 % and RMS of 1.413 nm for 150 nm thick TiN layers.

(64) Structural and Light-Emission Properties of High–Density Superatom–Like Ge–Core/Si–Shell Quantum Dots
K. Makihara, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Imai, N. Taoka, M.A. Schubert, B. Tillack, S. Miyazaki
Proc. 9th International Symposium on Control of Semiconductor Interfaces (ISCSI 2022), abstr. (2022)

(65) 180 GBd Electronic-Plasmonic IC Transmitter
D. Moor, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Langenhagen, J. Müllrich, R. Schmid, C. Uhl, M. Möller, U. Koch, Y. Horst, B.I. Bitachon, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, M. Destraz, H. Xu, Delwin, L. Elder, L.E. Johnson, P. Bakopoulos, E. Mentovich, L. Zimmermann, J. Leuthold
Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC 2022), M2D.3 (2022)
(plaCMOS)

(66) High Frequency Magnetic Sheet Materials – Performance Factor Comparisons and Design of Toroidal Inductors Embedded in PCB
R. Murphy, P. McCloskey, Z. Cao, C. O Mathuna, S. O&#;Driscoll
Proc. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC 2021), 2897 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/APEC42165.2021.9487131, (GaNonCMOS)

(67) Simulation of Integrated Optical Triple Ring Resonator for Sensing Application
S. M, P. Steglich
Proc. IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Computing and Communication Technologies (CONECCT 2022), (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/CONECCT55679.2022.9865772

(68) A High Linearity 6 GHz LNA in 130 nm SiGe Technology
A.B. Ozdol, H. Kandis, A. Burak, T.A. Ozkan, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
Proc. 17th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC 2022), 68 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC54520.2022.9923468

(69) Picosecond Avalanche Detector - Working Principle and Gain Measurement with a Proof-of-Concept Prototype
L. Paolozzi, M. Munker, R. Cardella, M. Milanesio, Y. Gurimskaya, F. Martinelli, A. Picardi, H. Rücker, A. Trusch, P. Valerio, F. Cadoux, R. Cardarelli, S. Débieux, Y. Favre, D. Ferrere, S. Gonzalez-Sevilla, R. Kotitsa, C. Magliocca, T. Moretti, M. Nessi, J. Sabater Iglesias, J. Saidi, M.V. Barreto Pinto, S. Zambito, G. Iacobucci
Journal of Instrumentation 17, 10032 (2022)
(SG13G3)

(70) Versatile Germanium Photodiodes with 3dB Bandwidths from 110GHz to 265GHz
A. Peczek, St. Lischke, D. Steckler, J. Morgan, A. Beling, L. Zimmermann
ECS Transactions 109(4), 21 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0021ecst, (plaCMOS)
We demonstrate waveguide coupled germanium fin p-i-n photodiode being on a par with state-of-the-art III-V devices. The intrinsic, undoped germanium regions of the photodiodes are sandwiched in between two complementary in situ-doped silicon regions, circumventing ion-implantation into Ge. By scaling the width of the germanium, different combinations of bandwidths and responsivities can be obtained. Optoelectrical 3-dB bandwidths reaching up to 265 GHz at (1550 nm) 1 mA photocurrent and 2 V reverse bias are shown for a device with ~100 nm narrow germanium fin. Certainly, broader germanium region will yield higher responsivities but on the expense of 3-dB bandwidths. Increase of the germanium width from 100 nm to 450 nm results in a change in internal responsivity from 0.3 A/W to 1 A/W at -2 V bias. The impact of high photocurrent on performance of our new photodiodes will be presented in this paper.

(71) Versatile Germanium Photodiodes with 3dB Bandwidths from 110GHz to 265GHz
A. Peczek, St. Lischke, D. Steckler, J. Morgan, A. Beling, L. Zimmermann
ECS Transactions 109(4), 21 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0021ecst, (DFG EPIDAC)
We demonstrate waveguide coupled germanium fin p-i-n photodiode being on a par with state-of-the-art III-V devices. The intrinsic, undoped germanium regions of the photodiodes are sandwiched in between two complementary in situ-doped silicon regions, circumventing ion-implantation into Ge. By scaling the width of the germanium, different combinations of bandwidths and responsivities can be obtained. Optoelectrical 3-dB bandwidths reaching up to 265 GHz at (1550 nm) 1 mA photocurrent and 2 V reverse bias are shown for a device with ~100 nm narrow germanium fin. Certainly, broader germanium region will yield higher responsivities but on the expense of 3-dB bandwidths. Increase of the germanium width from 100 nm to 450 nm results in a change in internal responsivity from 0.3 A/W to 1 A/W at -2 V bias. The impact of high photocurrent on performance of our new photodiodes will be presented in this paper.

(72) Versatile Germanium Photodiodes with 3dB Bandwidths from 110GHz to 265GHz
A. Peczek, St. Lischke, D. Steckler, J. Morgan, A. Beling, L. Zimmermann
ECS Transactions 109(4), 21 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0021ecst, (PEARLS)
We demonstrate waveguide coupled germanium fin p-i-n photodiode being on a par with state-of-the-art III-V devices. The intrinsic, undoped germanium regions of the photodiodes are sandwiched in between two complementary in situ-doped silicon regions, circumventing ion-implantation into Ge. By scaling the width of the germanium, different combinations of bandwidths and responsivities can be obtained. Optoelectrical 3-dB bandwidths reaching up to 265 GHz at (1550 nm) 1 mA photocurrent and 2 V reverse bias are shown for a device with ~100 nm narrow germanium fin. Certainly, broader germanium region will yield higher responsivities but on the expense of 3-dB bandwidths. Increase of the germanium width from 100 nm to 450 nm results in a change in internal responsivity from 0.3 A/W to 1 A/W at -2 V bias. The impact of high photocurrent on performance of our new photodiodes will be presented in this paper.

(73) In-Depth Characterization of Switching Dynamics in Amorphous HfO2 Memristive Arrays for the Implementation of Synaptic Updating Rules
E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez-Bosch Quesada, Ch. Wenger
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 61(SM), SM1007 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2021.3072868, (NeuroMem)
Accomplishing truly analog conductance modulation in memristive arrays is crucial in order to implement the synaptic plasticity in hardware-based neuromorphic systems. In this paper, such a feature was addressed by exploiting the inherent stochasticity of switching dynamics in amorphous HfO2 technology. A thorough statistical analysis of experimental characteristics measured in 4 kbit arrays by using trains of identical depression/ potentiation pulses with different voltage amplitudes and pulse widths provided the key to develop two different updating rules and to define their optimal programming parameters. The first rule is based on applying a specific number of identical pulses until the conductance value achieves the desired level. The second one utilized only one single pulse with a particular amplitude to achieve the targeted conductance level. In addition, all the results provided by the statistical analysis performed may play an important role in understanding better the switching behavior of this particular technology.

(74) In-Depth Characterization of Switching Dynamics in Amorphous HfO2 Memristive Arrays for the Implementation of Synaptic Updating Rules
E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez-Bosch Quesada, Ch. Wenger
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 61(SM), SM1007 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2021.3072868, (Neutronics)
Accomplishing truly analog conductance modulation in memristive arrays is crucial in order to implement the synaptic plasticity in hardware-based neuromorphic systems. In this paper, such a feature was addressed by exploiting the inherent stochasticity of switching dynamics in amorphous HfO2 technology. A thorough statistical analysis of experimental characteristics measured in 4 kbit arrays by using trains of identical depression/ potentiation pulses with different voltage amplitudes and pulse widths provided the key to develop two different updating rules and to define their optimal programming parameters. The first rule is based on applying a specific number of identical pulses until the conductance value achieves the desired level. The second one utilized only one single pulse with a particular amplitude to achieve the targeted conductance level. In addition, all the results provided by the statistical analysis performed may play an important role in understanding better the switching behavior of this particular technology.

(75) In-Depth Characterization of Switching Dynamics in Amorphous HfO2 Memristive Arrays for the Implementation of Synaptic Updating Rules
E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez-Bosch Quesada, Ch. Wenger
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 61(SM), SM1007 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2021.3072868, (KI-IoT)
Accomplishing truly analog conductance modulation in memristive arrays is crucial in order to implement the synaptic plasticity in hardware-based neuromorphic systems. In this paper, such a feature was addressed by exploiting the inherent stochasticity of switching dynamics in amorphous HfO2 technology. A thorough statistical analysis of experimental characteristics measured in 4 kbit arrays by using trains of identical depression/ potentiation pulses with different voltage amplitudes and pulse widths provided the key to develop two different updating rules and to define their optimal programming parameters. The first rule is based on applying a specific number of identical pulses until the conductance value achieves the desired level. The second one utilized only one single pulse with a particular amplitude to achieve the targeted conductance level. In addition, all the results provided by the statistical analysis performed may play an important role in understanding better the switching behavior of this particular technology.

(76) 150 GBd PAM-4 Electrical Signal Generation using SiGe-Based Analog Multiplexer Module
J. Schostak, T. Tannert, C. Schmidt, H. Rücker, V. Jungnickel, M. Grötzing, M. Berroth, R. Freund
Proc. European Microwave Week (EuMW 2022), 173 (2022)
(SG13G3)

(77) Influence of Process Parameters on Surface Activated Aluminum-to-Aluminum Wafer Bonding
S. Schulze, T. Voß, P. Krüger, M. Fraschke, P. Kulse, M. Wietstruck
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology 12(3), 578 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2022.3152348
Aluminum-to-aluminum wafer bonding is a promising technique for future wafer-level packaging and heterogeneous integration. The main challenge for a successful Al-to-Al thermocompression bonding is the fast oxidation of the aluminum surface. In this article, a surface-activated Al-to-Al wafer bonding process for patterned 200-mm wafers is presented, which removes the oxide in an argon plasma and enables a high bond quality with an accurate alignment. The influence of the bonding parameters’ temperature (200 °C–300 °C), force (20–40 kN), and activation time (2.5–5 min) on the contact resistances and bonding yield is analyzed. Additionally, we modified an etch mask during wafer fabrication and thereby improved the condition of the Al pad surface, which resulted in a higher bonding quality. Based on this optimized wafer fabrication process, we achieved a high bonding yield of >85% and contact resistances in the mΩ range for bonding temperatures as low as 250 °C. This demonstrates the potential of Al-to-Al wafer bonding to create reliable interconnects for 3-D wafer-level integration.

(78) Multiband Silicon Photonic ePIC Coherent Receiver for 64 GBd QPSK
P.M. Seiler, K. Voigt, A. Peczek, G. Georgieva, St. Lischke, A. Malignaggi, L. Zimmermann
IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 40(10), 3331 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2022.3158423
Multiband coherent communication is being handled as a promising candidate to address the increasing demand for higher data rates and capacity. At the same time, coherent communication is expected to enter the data center domain in the near future. With coherent data links in both, data- and telecom, spanning multiple optical bands, novel approaches to coherent transceiver design and traffic engineering will become a necessity. In this work, we present a monolithically integrated silicon photonic coherent receiver for O- and C-band. The receiver features a 2 × 2 multi-mode interference coupler network as 90∘ hybrid optimized for 1430 nm (E-band). The total power consumption is 460 mW at a footprint of approximately 6 mm2, and an opto-electrical bandwidth of 33 GHz. 64 GBd operation is demonstrated in O- and C-band, which is competitive to the state-of-the-art for silicon photonic coherent receiver in the C-band, and the highest symbol rate to date for O-band coherent communication.

(79) A W-band Low-Power Gilbert Cell Mixer with Image Rejection in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology
K. Smirnova, M. Kaynak, A.C. Ulusoy
Proc. 52nd European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2022), 688 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMC54642.2022.9924349

(80) H2020-SPACE-ORIONAS Miniaturized Optical Transceivers and Amplifiers for High-Speed Optical Inter-Satellite Links
L. Stampoulidis, A. Osman, I. Sourikopoulos, M. Welch, J. Edmunds, S. Kehayas, G. Winzer, L. Zimmermann, W. Dorward, A. Serrano Rodrigo, M. Chiesa, D. Rotta, A. Maho, M. Faugeron, M. Sotom, F. Caccavale, F. Duport, A. Sancho, D. Mesquita
Proc. 34th SPIE Free-Space Laser Communications (LASE 2022), 119930, 119930E (2022)
DOI: 10.1117/12.2609596, (ORIONAS)

(81) H2020-SPACE-ORIONAS Miniaturized Optical Transceivers for High-Speed Optical Intersatellite Links
L. Stampoulidis, A. Osman, I. Sourikopoulos, G. Winzer, L. Zimmermann, W. Dorward, A. Serrano Rodrigo, M. Chiesa, D. Rotta, A. Maho, M. Faugeron, M. Sotom, F. Caccavale
zu finden unter: https://arxiv.org/abs/2210.17304
(ORIONAS)

(82) Nanostructured Manganite Films Grown by Pulsed Injection MOCVD: Tuning Low- and High-Field Magnetoresistive Properties for Sensors Applications
V. Stankevic, N. Zurauskiene, S. Kersulis, V. Plausinaitiene, R. Lukose, J. Klimantavicius, S. Tolvaiciene, M. Skapas, A. Selskis, S. Balevicius
Sensors (MDPI) 22(2), 605 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/s22020605
The results of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) properties of La0.83Sr0.17Mn1.21O3 (LSMO) films grown by pulsed injection MOCVD technique onto various substrates are presented. The films with thicknesses of 360 nm and 60 nm grown on AT-cut single crystal quartz, polycrystalline Al2O3 and amorphous Si/SiO2 substrates were nanostructured with column-shaped crystallites spread perpendicular to the film plane. It was found that morphology, microstructure and magnetoresistive properties of the films strongly depend on the used substrate. The low-field MR at low temperatures (25 K) showed twice higher values (-31 % at 0.7 T) in comparison with films grown on the other substrates (-15%). This value is high in comparison with published in literature results for manganite films prepared without additional insolating oxides. The high-field MR measured up to 20 T at 80 K was also the highest for LSMO/quartz films (-56%) and demonstrated the highest sensitivity S=0.28 V/T at B=0.25 T (voltage supply 2.5 V), which is promising for magnetic sensors applications. It was demonstrated that Mn excess Mn/(La+Sr)=1.21 increases the metal-insulator transition temperature the films up to 285 K, which allows to increase the operation temperature of magnetic sensors up to 363 K. These results allow to fabricate CMR sensors with predetermined parameters in a wide range of magnetic fields and temperatures.

(83) A Fully Integrated 0.48 THz FMCW Radar Transceiver MMIC in a SiGe-Technology
D. Starke, J. Wittemeier, F. Vogelsang, B. Sievert, D. Erni, A. Rennings, H. Rücker, N. Pohl
Proc. European Microwave Week (EuMW 2022), 56 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMIC54520.2022.9923443, (SG13G3)

(84) Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRi) and Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC) for COVID-19 Severity Monitoring
P. Steglich, R. Schasfoort
COVID (MDPI) 2(3), 389 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/covid2030027
Direct optical detection methods such as surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and photonic-integrated-circuits (PIC)-based biosensors provide a fast label-free detection of COVID-19 antibodies in real-time. Each technology, i.e., SPRi and PIC, has advantages and disadvantages in terms of throughput, miniaturization, multiplexing, system integration, and cost-effective mass production. However, both technologies share similarities in terms of sensing mechanism and both can be used as high-content diagnostics at or near to point of care, where the analyte is not just quantified but comprehensively characterized. This is significant because recent results suggest that not only the antibody concentration of the three isotypes IgM, IgG, and IgA but also the strength of binding (affinity) gives an indication of potential COVID-19 severity. COVID-19 patients with high titers of low affinity antibodies are associated with disease severity. In this perspective, we provide some insights into how SPR and PIC technologies can be effectively combined and complementarily used for a comprehensive COVID-19 severity monitoring. This opens a route toward an immediate therapy decision to provide patients a treatment in an early stage of the infection, which could drastically lowers the risk of a severe disease course.

(85) Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Spectroscopy and Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) Biosensors: A Comparative Review
P. Steglich, G. Lecci, A. Mai
Sensors (MDPI) 22(8), 2901 (2022)
DOI: 10.3390/s22082901
Label-free direct-optical biosensors such as surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy has become a gold standard in biochemical analytics in centralized laboratories. Biosensors based on photonic integrated circuits (PIC) are based on the same physical sensing mechanism: evanescent field sensing. PIC-based biosensors can play an important role in healthcare, especially for point-of-care diagnostics, if challenges for a transfer from research laboratory to industrial applications can be overcome. Research is at this threshold, which presents a great opportunity for innovative on-site analyses in the health and environmental sectors. A deeper understanding of the innovative PIC technology is possible by comparing it with the well-established SPR spectroscopy. In this work, we shortly introduce both technologies and reveal similarities and differences. Further, we review some latest advances and compare both technologies in terms of surface functionalization and sensor performance.

(86) Self-Aligned on-Chip Spherical Dielectric Resonators and Antennas for SiGe MMIC
G. Sterzl, Y. Zhu, J. Hesselbarth, C. Carta, M. Lisker, F. Ellinger
Proc. Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2022), 686 (2022)

(87) Gain Enhancement of BiCMOS On-Chip Sub-THz Antennas by Mean of Meta-Cells
M. Stocchi, Z. Cao, C.H. Joseph, T. Voss, D. Mencarelli, L. Pierantoni, C. Baristiran Kaynak, J. Hebeler, T. Zwick, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak
Scientific Reports 12, 3946 (2022)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-07902-0
A MM-loaded sub-THz on-chip antenna with a narrow beamwidth, 9 dB gain and a simulated peak efficiency of 76% at the center frequency of 300 GHz is presented. By surrounding the antenna with a single MM-cell ring defined solely on the top metal of the back-end of line, an efficient suppression of the surface waves is obtained. The on-chip antenna has been designed using IHPs 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology with a 7-layer metallization stack, combined with the local backside etching process aimed to creating an air cavity which is then terminated by a reflective plane. By comparing the measured MM-loaded antenna performances to its non-MM-loaded counterpart, an enhanced integrity of the main lobe due to the MM-cells shielding effect can be observed. An excellent agreement between the simulated and measured performances has been found, which makes the MM-loaded antennas a valid alternative for the upcoming next-generation sub-THz transceivers.

(88) A Static Frequency Divider up to 163 GHz in SiGe-BiCMOS Technology
F. Vogelsang, C. Bredendiek, J. Schöpfel, H. Rücker, N. Pohl
Proc. IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium (BCICTS 2022), 49 (2022)
(SG13G3)

(89) Characterization of Dynamic Large-Signal Operating Limits and Long-Term RF Reliability of SiGe HBTs
C. Weimer, X. Jin, G.G. Fischer, M. Schröter
Proc. IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium (BCICTS 2022), 220 (2022)
(SIGEREL)

(90) A Small-Area, Low-Power 76-81GHz HBT-Based Differential Power Detector for Built-In Self-Test in Automotive Radar Applications
Y. Wenger, H.J. Ng, F. Korndörfer, B. Meinerzhagen, V. Issakov
Proc. 25th IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC 2022), 119 (2022)
DOI: 10.1109/RFIC54546.2022.9863198

(91) 3-Dimensional Self-Ordered Multilayered Ge Nanodots on SiGe
W.-C. Wen, M.A. Schubert, M.H. Zoellner, B. Tillack, Y. Yamamoto
ECS Transactions 109(4), 343 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0343ecst
Three-dimensional (3D) self-ordered Ge nanodots in cyclic epitaxial growth of Ge/SiGe superlattice on Si0.4Ge0.6 virtual substrate (VS) were fabricated by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. By the Ge/SiGe superlattice deposition, dot-on-dot alignment and <100> alignment were obtained toward the vertical and lateral direction, respectively. Facets and growth mechanism of Ge nanodots and key factors of alignment were studied. Two types of Ge nanodots were observed, diamond-like nanodots composed of {105} and dome-like nanodots composed of {113} and {159} facets. The Ge nanodots tend to grow directly above the nanodots of the previous period as these regions show a relative higher tensile strain induced by the buried nanodots. Thus, this dot-on-dot alignment is sensitive to the SiGe spacer thickness, and it degrades when the SiGe spacer is over 82 nm. The Ge content of the SiGe spacer ranging 45-52% affects the lateral alignment and the size uniformity of Ge nanodots because of the strain balance between the superlattice and the VS. When the strain is balanced, 3D aligned Ge nanodots can be achieved.

(92) 3-Dimensional Self-Ordered Multilayered Ge Nanodots on SiGe
W.-C. Wen, M.A. Schubert, B. Tillack, Y. Yamamoto
Proc. 242nd ECS Meeting: SiGe, Ge, and Related Compounds: Materials, Processing and Devices (ECS Meeting 2022), (2022)

(93) Vertical Alignment Control of Self-Ordered Multilayered Ge Nanodots on SiGe
W.-C. Wen, B. Tillack, Y. Yamamoto
Proc. 54th International Conference on Solid State Device and Materials (SSDM 2022), 87 (2022)

(94) BiCMOS Integrated Temperature Sensor for Thermal Evaluation of Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging (FOWLP) Including Hot Spot Analysis
M. Wietstruck, T. Mausolf, J. Lehmann, Z. Cao, T.D. Nguyen, M. Wöhrmann, T. Braun
Proc. 4th IMAPS Nordic 2022 Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac 2022), (2022)

(95) A SiGe Based 0.48 THz Signal Source with 45 GHz Tuning Range
J. Wittemeier, F. Vogelsang, D. Starke, H. Rücker, N. Pohls
Proc. 51st European Microwave Conference (EuMC 2021), 869 (2022)
DOI: 10.23919/EuMC50147.2022.9784318, (Taranto)

(96) High Quality Ge Growth on Si (111) and Si (110) by Using Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
Y. Yamamoto, W. -C. Wen, M.A. Schubert, C. Corley-Wiciak, B. Tillack
ECS Transactions 109(4), 205 (2022)
DOI: 10.1149/10904.0205ecst
A method for high quality epitaxial growth of Ge on Si (111) and Si (110) is investigated by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. Two step Ge epitaxy (low temperature Ge seed and high temperature main Ge growth) with several cycles of annealing by interrupting the Ge growth (cyclic annealing) is performed. In the case of Ge seed layer growth below 350°C for (111) and 400°C for (110) orientation, huge surface roughening due to too high dislocation density is observed after the following annealing step. For both crystal orientations, a high crystallinity Ge seed layer is realized by combination of 450°C growth with 800°C annealing. Once the high-quality Ge seed layer is deposited, high crystal quality Ge can be grown at 600°C on the seed layer for both crystal orientations. For the 5 µm thick Ge layer deposited with the cyclic annealing process at 800°C, a Si diffusion length of ~400 nm from the interface, RMS roughness below 0.5 nm and threading dislocation density of 5×106 cm-2 are achieved for both (111) and (110) substrates.

(97) High Quality Ge Growth on Si (111) and Si (110) by Using Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
Y. Yamamoto, W.-C. Wen, M.A. Schubert, C. Corley-Wiciak, B. Tillack
Proc. 242nd ECS Meeting: SiGe, Ge, and Related Compounds: Materials, Processing and Devices (ECS Meeting 2022), (2022)

(98) Heteroepitaxy of Group IV Materials for Future Device Application
Y. Yamamoto, W.-C. Wen, B. Tillack
Proc. 54th International Conference on Solid State Device and Materials (SSDM 2022), abstr. book 85 (2022)

(99) A SiGe BiCMOS Amplifier-Frequency Doubler Chain Operating for 284–328 GHz
J. Yoo, J. Kim, J. Yun, M. Kaynak, J.-S. Rieh
Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science 22(2), 114 (2022)
DOI: 10.26866/jees.2022.2.r.67
This work describes the development of an amplifier frequency doubler chain (AFDC) operating at around 300 GHz based on SiGe BiCMOS technology. The driver amplifier is based on the differential cascode configuration, which employs coupled-line transformers for compact design. The frequency doubler is based on the class-B topology, which is known for exhibiting a large output power with low DC power consumption. The integrated AFDC, which consists of the frequency doubler and the preceding driver amplifier, exhibited a measured peak output power and DC-to-RF efficiency of −0.9 dBm and 0.97%, respectively, along with a conversion gain of −0.1 dB. It operates from 284 to 328 GHz with a 0-dBm input signal, consuming a total DC power of only 84 mW. The chip size is 720 × 310 μm2, excluding RF and DC pads.

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