Publications 2019

Script list Publications

(1) Evaluation of the ECDSA IHP Hardware Accelerator
M. Aftowicz, D. Klann, I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 31st Crypto Day Matters 2019, (2019)
DOI: 10.18420/cdm-2019-31-04, (fast sign)

(2) SPICE-based SET Pulse Width Model
M. Andjelkovic, M. Krstic, R. Kraemer
Proc. 31. ITG/GI/GMM-Workshop Testmethoden und Zuverlässigkeit von Schaltungen und Systemen (TuZ 2019), 25 (2019)
(REDOX)
In this paper, a SET pulse width model derived from SPICE simulations is presented. The model expresses the SET pulse width in terms of particle’s LET, target inverter’s drive strength and supply voltage. A bias-dependent current source was employed to model the SET current pulse, thus providing better accuracy compared to similar approaches based on the widely used double-exponential current source. Evaluation was done for standard inverters in IHP’s 130 nm CMOS process. The average relative error of the proposed model with respect to the results from SPICE simulations is below 10 % for analyzed cases.

(3) A Methodology for Characterization and Mitigation of SET Effects in Combinational Logic
M. Andjelkovic, M. Krstic, R. Kraemer
Proc. 24th IEEE European Test Symposium: PhD Forum (ETS 2019), (2019)
(REDOX)

(4) Characterization and Modeling of SET Generation Effects in CMOS Standard Logic Cells
M. Andjelkovic, Y. Li, Z. Stamenkovic, M. Krstic, R. Kraemer
Proc. 25th IEEE International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS 2019), 212 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/IOLTS.2019.8854379, (REDOX)

(5) Selective Fault Tolerance by Counting Gates with Controlling Value
A. Breitenreiter, St. Weidling, O. Schrape, St. Zeidler, P. Reviriego, M. Krstic
Proc. 25th IEEE International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS 2019), 15 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/IOLTS.2019.8854380, (SEPHY)

(6) Real-World Deployments of Sensor Networks: Practical Lessons for Researchers
M. Brzozowski, M. Frohberg, P. Langendörfer
Computer Communications 145, 326 (2019)
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02931-9_4, (DIAMANT)
In this paper, we share lessons learned from our previous installations of wireless sensor networks, and hope these lessons will help other reserach groups to install real-world applications more efficiently.
We rediscovered the well known KISS principle (Keep it Simple Stupid), which holds true especially for real-world deployments of sensor networks, especially that as researchers we tend to prefer more complex and sophisticated ideas.
Second, we underestimated practical issues in outdoor installations, and it led to unexpected and time-consuming problems. For instance, we did not notice that the selected voltage regulator works reliably only in temperatures above zero degree Celsius, leading to packet losses and a long debugging process.
Third, apart from extensive software tests before deployment, our protocols and applications include also self-healing instructions. They detect software bugs on run-time and restart motes if needed.
With all these three major steps, we were able to run real-world sensor networks for several years without major problems. 

(7) 100 Gbit/s End-to-End Communication: Adding Flexibility with Protocol Templates
S. Buechner, A. Hasani, J. Nolte, L. Lopacinski, R. Kraemer
Proc. 43rd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2018), 263 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/LCN.2018.8638078, (DFG-SPP1655)

(8) PICO: A Platform Independent Communications Middleware for Heterogeneous Devices in Smart Grids
J. Chen, E. Canete, D. Garrido, M. Diaz, K. Piotrowski
Computer Standards and Interfaces 65, 1 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.csi.2019.01.005, (e-balance)
This paper presents a data-centric middleware responsible for real-time communication and data storage in smart grids. The middleware offers a high level programming model that provides ways of storing/getting information from/to the grid and encrypts messages thus providing a secure message exchange. The design has taken into account the heterogeneity of devices, software platforms and stakeholders involved in this kind of scenario. A modular vision is followed in such a way that middleware components can be easily adapted to different platforms and a simple data interface is provided by means of REST (Representational State Transfer) web services and a high level asynchronous API. The middleware is currently being used in the context of a European project (e-balance) where soft real-time requirements, security and low capacity devices are some of the requirements in an example Cyber-physical System (CPS). The demonstration scenarios are detailed in this paper together with the validation tests that show that the use of this programming abstraction is feasible.

(9) Engineering of Resilient Crypto-Hardware: Balancing between FI and SCA Resistance
Z. Dyka, I. Kabin, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 22nd EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design and Software Engineering and Advanced Applications - Session on Work in Progress (Euromicro DSD & SEAA 2019), (2019)
(Total Resilience)

(10) Researching Resilience a Holistic Approach
Z. Dyka, I. Kabin, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 17th IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS 2019), 88 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/EWDTS.2019.8884447, (Total Resilience)

(11) Resilience more than the Sum of Security and Dependability: Cognition is what makes the Difference
Z. Dyka, E. Vogel, I. Kabin, M. Aftowicz, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 8th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO 2019), 23 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/MECO.2019.8760139, (Total Resilience)

(12) Caution: GALS-Ification as a Means against SCA Attacks
Z. Dyka, I. Kabin, D. Klann, F. Vater, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 17th IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS 2019), 97 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/EWDTS.2019.8884465, (Total Resilience)

(13) RESCUE EDA Toolset for Interdependent Aspects of Reliability, Security and Quality in Nanoelectronic Systems Design
C.C. Gürsoy, G. Medeiros, J.-C. Chen, N. George, J.E. Rodriguez Condia, T. Lange, A. Damljanovic, A. Balakrishnan, R. Segabinazzi Ferreira, X. Lai, S. Masoumian, D. Petryk, T. Koylu, F. da Silva, A. Bagbaba, S. Hamdioui, M. Taouil, M. Krstic, P. Langendörfer, Z. Dyka, M. Huebner, J. Nolte, H.T. Vierhaus, M. Sonza Reorda, G. Squillero, L. Sterpone, J. Raik, D. Alexandrescu, M. Glorieux, G. Selimis, G.J. Schrijen, A. Klotz, C. Sauer, M. Jenihhin
Proc. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3362529, (RESCUE)

(14) A Modified Shuffling Method to Split the Critical Path Delay in Layered Decoding of QC-LDPC Codes
A. Hasani, L. Lopacinski, S. Büchner, J. Nolte, R. Kraemer
Proc. 30th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/PIMRC.2019.8904435, (DFG-SPP1655)

(15) An Unnoticed Property in QC-LDPC Codes to Find the Message from the Codeword in Non-Systematic Codes
A. Hasani, L. Lopacinski, S. Büchner, J. Nolte, R. Kraemer
Proc. 28th European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC 2019), 6 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/EuCNC.2019.8801957, (DFG-SPP1655)

(16) Horizontal DPA Attacks against ECC: Impact of Implemented Field Multiplication Formula
I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 14th IEEE International Conference on Design & Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/DTIS.2019.8735011, (Total Resilience)
Due to the nature of applications such as critical infrastructure and the Internet of Things etc. side channel analysis attacks are becoming a serious threat. Side channel analysis attacks take advantage from the fact that the behavior of crypto implementations can be observed and provides hints that simplify revealing keys. A new type of SCA are so called horizontal SCAs. Well known randomization based countermeasures are effective means against vertical DPA attacks but they are not effective against horizontal DPA attacks. In this paper we investigate how the formula used to implement the multiplication of GF(2n)-elements influences the results of horizontal DPA attacks against a Montgomery kP-implementation. We implemented 5 designs with different partial multipliers, i.e. based on different multiplication formulae. We used two different technologies, i.e. a 130 and a 250 nm technology, to simulate power traces for our analysis. We show that the implemented multiplication formula influences the success of horizontal attacks significantly, but we also learned that its impact differs from technology to technology. Our analysis also reveals that this kind of randomization as a single countermeasure is not sufficient to protect cryptographic designs against horizontal DPA attacks.

(17) On the Complexity of Attacking Commercial Authentication Products
I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility & Security (NTMS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/NTMS.2019.8763782, (Total Resilience)

(18) Horizontal Attacks against ECC: From Simulations to ASIC
I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. International Workshop on Information & Operational Technology (IT & OT) Security Systems (IOSec 2019), (2019)
(Total Resilience)

(19) Influence of Synopsys Design Compiler Options on the Success of Horizontal DPA Attacks
I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 22nd EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design and Software Engineering and Advanced Applications - Session on Work in Progress (Euromicro DSD & SEAA 2019), (2019)
(Total Resilience)

(20) Fast and Secure Unified Field Multiplier for ECC Based on the 4-Segment Karatsuba Multiplication
I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 17th IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS 2019), 320 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/EWDTS.2019.8884393, (fast sign)

(21) Horizontal Attacks Using K-Means: Comparison with Traditional Analysis Methods
I. Kabin, M. Aftowicz, Y. Varabei, D. Klann, Z. Dyka, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility & Security (NTMS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/NTMS.2019.8763777, (Total Resilience)

(22) Horizontal SCA Attack using Machine Learning Algorithms
I. Kabin, M. Aftowicz, D. Klann, Y. Varabei, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 30th Crypto Day Matters 2019, (2019)
DOI: 10.18420/cdm-2019-30-05, (Total Resilience)

(23) ECC Based Secure Authentication Solutions
I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 30th Crypto Day Matters 2019, (2019)
DOI: 10.18420/cdm-2019-30-21, (Total Resilience)

(24) myAirCoach: mHealth Assisted Self-Management in Patients with Uncontrolled Asthma, a Randomized Control Trial
R. Khusial, P. Honkoop, O. Usmani, M. Soares, M. Biddiscombe, S. Meah, M. Bonini, A. Lalas, J. Koopmans, J. Snoeck-Stroband, St. Ortmann, K. Moustakas, K. Votis, D. Tzovaras, K.F. Chung, S. Fowler, J. Sont
European Respiratory Journal 54(63), PA745 (2019)
DOI: 10.1183/13993003.congress-2019.PA745, (myAirCoach)
Background
Self-management programmes have beneficial effects on asthma control, but their implementation in clinical practice is poor. Mobile health (mHealth) could play an important role in enhancing self-management. We assessed the clinical effectiveness and technology acceptance of myAirCoach supported self-management on top of usual care in patients with uncontrolled asthma.
Methods
Patients with uncontrolled asthma were recruited in two separate studies. The myAirCoach system consisted of an inhaler adapter, an indoor air-quality monitor, a physical activity tracker, a portable spirometer, a FeNO-device and an app. The primary outcome was asthma control; secondary outcomes were exacerbations, quality of life, and technology acceptance. In study 1, 30 participants were randomised to either usual care or myAirCoach support for 3-6 months; in study 2, 12 participants were provided with the myAirCoach system in a 3 month before-after study.
Results
In study 1 asthma control improved in the intervention group compared to controls (ACQ-difference 0.70, p=0.006). A total of six exacerbations occurred in the intervention group compared to 12 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.31, p=0.06). Asthma related quality of life improved (m-AQLQ difference 0.53, p= 0.04) but FEV1 was unchanged. In study 2, asthma control improved by 0.86 compared to baseline (p=0.007) and quality of life by 0.16 (p=0.64). Participants reported positive attitudes towards the system.  
Conclusion
Using the myAirCoach support system improves asthma control and quality of life, with a reduction in severe asthma exacerbations. Well-validated mHealth technologies should therefore be further developed for use in clinical practice to enhance self-management.

(25) Security Engineering for Cyber Physical Systems
P. Langendörfer
Proc. 22nd EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design and Software Engineering and Advanced Applications - Session on Work in Progress (Euromicro DSD & SEAA 2019), (2019)
(Total Resilience)

(26) Using Machine Learning Techniques for Hardware Performance Counter Classification and ROP Attack Detection
K. Lehniger, Y. Varabei, M. Aftowicz, S.E.H. Rastegar, Z. Dyka, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 31st Crypto Day Matters 2019, (2019)
DOI: 10.18420/cdm-2019-31-27

(27) The Impact of Diverse Execution Strategies on Incremental Code Updates for Wireless Sensor Networks
K. Lehniger, S. Weidling
Proc. 8th International Conference on Sensor Networks (SENSORNETS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.5220/0007383400300039, (DIAMANT)

(28) Data Link Layer Processor for 100 Gbps Terahertz Wireless Communications in 28 nm CMOS Technology
L. Lopacinski, M. Marinkovic, G. Panic, M.H. Eissa, A. Hasani, K. KrishneGowda, R. Kraemer
IEEE Access 7, 44489 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2907156, (fast spot)
In this paper, we show our 165 Gbps data link layer processor for wireless communication in the terahertz band. The design utilizes interleaved Reed-Solomon codes with dedicated link adaptation, fragmentation, aggregation, and hybrid-automatic-repeat-request. The main advantage is the low chip area required to fabricate the processor, which is at least 2 times lower than the area of low-density parity-check decoders. Surprisingly, our solution loses only ~1 dB gain when compared to high-speed low-density parity-check decoders. Moreover, with only 2.38 pJ/bit of energy consumption at 0.8V, one of the best results in the class of comparable implementations has been achieved. Alongside, we show our vision of a complete 100 Gbps wireless transceiver, including radio frequency frontend and baseband processing. For the baseband realization, we propose parallel sequence spread spectrum and channel combining at the baseband level. Challenges to high-speed wireless transmission at the terahertz band are addressed as well. To the authors’ best knowledge, it is one of the first data link layer implementations that deal with a data rate of ≥100 Gbps.

(29) Modular Data Link Layer Processing for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 22nd International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/DDECS.2019.8724657, (fast spot)

(30) Modular Data Link Layer Processing for THz Communication
L. Lopacinski, M.H. Eissa, G. Panic, A. Hasani, R. Kraemer
Proc. 22nd International Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/DDECS.2019.8724657, (DFG-SPP1655)

(31) Data Link Layer Processor for 100 Gbps Terahertz Wireless Communications in 28 nm CMOS Technology
L. Lopacinski, M. Marinkovic, G. Panic, M.H. Eissa, A. Hasani, K. KrishneGowda, R. Kraemer
IEEE Access 7, 44489 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2907156, (DFG-SPP1655)
In this paper, we show our 165 Gbps data link layer processor for wireless communication in the terahertz band. The design utilizes interleaved Reed-Solomon codes with dedicated link adaptation, fragmentation, aggregation, and hybrid-automatic-repeat-request. The main advantage is the low chip area required to fabricate the processor, which is at least 2 times lower than the area of low-density parity-check decoders. Surprisingly, our solution loses only ~1 dB gain when compared to high-speed low-density parity-check decoders. Moreover, with only 2.38 pJ/bit of energy consumption at 0.8V, one of the best results in the class of comparable implementations has been achieved. Alongside, we show our vision of a complete 100 Gbps wireless transceiver, including radio frequency frontend and baseband processing. For the baseband realization, we propose parallel sequence spread spectrum and channel combining at the baseband level. Challenges to high-speed wireless transmission at the terahertz band are addressed as well. To the authors’ best knowledge, it is one of the first data link layer implementations that deal with a data rate of ≥100 Gbps.

(32) Edge Computing Devices Assessment for Cryptography and Biomedical Signal Analysis
R. Natarov, Y. Varabei, I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 31st Crypto Day Matters 2019, (2019)
DOI: 10.18420/cdm-2019-31-09, (Total Resilience)

(33) Sono-Teleconsulting (USTeleCon) – Update 2019
D. Nürnberg, A. Haddadi Esfahani, D. Boten, H. Lo, St. Ortmann
Ultraschall in der Medizin / European Journal of Ultrasound (UiM/EJU) 40(S01), S54 (2019)
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1695955, (Digilog)

(34) Sono-Teleconsulting
St. Ortmann, A. Haddadi Esfahani, Ch. Wenger, V. Frauendorf, D. Nürnberg
Proc. 1. digilog-Kongress 2019, 114 (2019)
(Digilog)

(35) PEAKTOP Instruction Set Architecture Manual v1.3.10.4 (rev. 190814)
A. Simevski
www.moral-project.eu
(MORAL)

(36) On the Impact of the Sampling Rate on the Success of Horizontal DEMA Attack
A. Sosa, I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 31st Crypto Day Matters 2019, (2019)
DOI: 10.18420/cdm-2019-31-06, (Total Resilience)

(37) Beam Entropy of 5G Cellular Millimetre-Wave Channels
K.K. Tiwari, E. Grass, J.S. Thompson, R. Kraemer
Proc. 90th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall 2019), (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/VTCFall.2019.8891530

(38) Memory-Assisted Statistically-Ranked RF Beam Training Algorithm for Sparse MIMO
K.K. Tiwari, E. Grass, J.S. Thompson, R. Kraemer
zu finden unter: https://arxiv.org/abs/1906.01719

(39) A Survey on Bluetooth Multi-Hop Networks
N. Todtenberg, R. Kraemer
Ad Hoc Networks 93, 101922 (2019)
DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2019.101922
Bluetooth was firstly announced in 1998. Originally designed as cable replacement connecting devices in a point-to-point fashion its high penetration arouses interest in its ad-hoc networking potential. This ad-hoc networking potential of Bluetooth is advertised for years - but until recently no actual products were available and less than a handful of real Bluetooth multi-hop network deployments were reported. The turnaround was triggered by the release of the Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Profile which is unquestionable a great achievement but not well suited for all use cases of multi-hop networks. This paper surveys the tremendous work done on Bluetooth multi-hop networks during the last 20 years. All aspects are discussed with demands for a real world Bluetooth multi-hop operation in mind. Relationships and side effects of different topics for a real world implementation are explained. This unique focus distinguishes this survey from existing ones. Furthermore, to the best of the authors’ knowledge this is the first survey consolidating the work on Bluetooth multi-hop networks for classic Bluetooth technology as well as for Bluetooth Low Energy. Another individual characteristic of this survey is a synopsis of real world Bluetooth multi-hop network deployment efforts. In fact, there are only four reports of a successful establishment of a Bluetooth multi-hop network with more than 30 nodes and only one of them was integrated in a real world application - namely a photovoltaic power plant.

(40) ParSec: Ein innovatives Funksystem für die Fertigungsautomation
L. Underberg, R. Kraemer, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, R. Kays
at - Automatisierungstechnik 67(1), 29 (2019)
DOI: 10.1515/auto-2018-0056, (ParSec)

(41) Intelligent Clustering as a Means to Improve K-Means Based Horizontal Attacks
Y. Varabei, I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 31st Crypto Day Matters 2019, (2019)
DOI: 10.18420/cdm-2019-31-10, (Total Resilience)

(42) Intelligent Clustering as a Means to Improve K-Means Based Horizontal Attacks
Y. Varabei, I. Kabin, Z. Dyka, D. Klann, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 30th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC 2019) Workshop-W6: Machine Learning for Security and Cryptography, (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/PIMRCW.2019.8880831, (Total Resilience)

(43) SWIELD: An In Situ Approach for Adaptive Low Power and Error-Resilient Operation
M. Veleski, R. Kraemer, M. Krstic
Proc. 17th IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS 2019), 430 (2019)
DOI: 10.1109/EWDTS.2019.8884428

(44) Programmable In-Situ Delay Monitor for Energy-Efficient and Resilient Complex SoC
M. Veleski, R. Kraemer, M. Krstic
Proc. 24th IEEE European Test Symposium: PhD Forum (ETS 2019), (2019)

(45) A Programmable Error-Predictive In-Situ Delay Monitor for Adaptive Low Power and Error-Resilient Complex System-On-Chip
M. Veleski, R. Kraemer, M. Krstic
Proc. 9th Biannual European - Latin American Summer School on Design, Test and Reliability (BELAS 2019), (2019)

(46) Securing Over-the-Air Code Updates in Wireless Sensor Networks
Ch. Wittke, K. Lehniger, St. Weidling, M. Schölzel
Harnessing the Internet of Everything (IoE) for Accelerated Innovation Opportunities, 1st Edition, Editors: P.J.S. Cardoso, J. Monteiro, J. Semião, J.M.F. Rodrigues, Chapter 13. Securing Over-the-Air Code Updates in Wireless Sensor Networks, IGI Global, 302 (2019) 
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7332-6.ch013, (DIAMANT)
With the growing number of wireless devices in the IoT, maintenance and management of these devices becomes a key issue. In particular, the capability for wireless code updates is a must in order to fix security issues, software bugs, and extend firmware functionality in the field. Thereby, code update mechanisms in WSNs have to deal with limited resources. On top of that, the capability of wireless code updates also opens new security vulnerabilities. The chapter presents a general overview about various approaches for OTA code update techniques for WSNs. Distribution protocols as well as techniques for improving the reliability of these updates are presented, too. Based on this overview about existing OTA techniques their security flaws are presented along with some existing attacks and possible countermeasures. Therefore, a classification of security threats is presented and which of them can be used more easily with code update functionality. Finally the state of the art countermeasures are presented and compared if they secure the mentioned weakened security objectives.

(47) Horizontal DEMA Attack as the Criterion to Select the Best Suitable EM Probe
Ch. Wittke, I. Kabin, D. Klann, Z. Dyka, A. Datsuk, P. Langendörfer
zu finden unter: http://eprint.iacr.org/
(Total Resilience)
Implementing cryptographic algorithms in a tamper resistant way is an extremely complex task as the algorithm used and the target platform have a significant impact on the potential leakage of the implementation. In addition the quality of the tools used for the attacks is of importance. In order to evaluate the resistance of a certain design against electromagnetic emanation attacks – as a highly relevant type of attacks – we discuss the quality of different electromagnetic (EM) probes as attack tools. In this paper we propose to use the results of horizontal attacks for comparison of measurement setup and for determining the best suitable instruments for measurements. We performed horizontal differential electromagnetic analysis (DEMA) attacks against our ECC design that is an im-plementation of the Montgomery kP algorithm for the NIST elliptic curve B-233. We experimented with 7 different EM probes under same conditions: attacked FPGA, design, inputs, measurement point and measurement equipment were the same, excepting EM probes. The used EM probe influences the success rate of performed attack significantly. We used this fact for the comparison of probes and for determining the best suitable one.

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