Publications 2020

Script list Publications

(1) Separation, Characterization, and Handling of Microalgae by Dielectrophoresis
V. Abt, F. Gringel, A. Han, P. Neubauer, M. Birkholz
Microorganisms 8(4), 540 (2020)
DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms8040540, (SepaDiElo)
Microalgae biotechnology has a high potential for sustainable bioproduction of diverse high-value biomolecules. Some of the main bottlenecks in cell-based bioproduction, and more specifically in microalgae-based bioproduction, are due to insufficient methods for rapid and efficient cell characterization, which contributes to having only a few industrially established microalgal species in commercial use. Dielectrophoresis-based microfluidic devices have been long established as promising tools for label-free handling, characterization, and separation of broad ranges of cells. The technique is based on differences in dielectric properties and sizes, which results in different degrees of cell movement under an applied inhomogeneous electrical field. The method has also earned interest for separating microalgae based on their intrinsic properties, since their dielectric properties may significantly change during bioproduction, in particular for lipid-producing species. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of dielectrophoresis-based microfluidic devices that are used for handling, characterization, and separation of microalgae. Additionally, we provide a perspective on related areas of research in cell-based bioproduction that can benefit from dielectrophoresis-based microdevices. This work provides key information that will be useful for microalgae researchers to decide whether dielectrophoresis and which method is most suitable for their particular application.

(2) Separation, Characterization, and Handling of Microalgae by Dielectrophoresis
V. Abt, F. Gringel, A. Han, P. Neubauer, M. Birkholz
Microorganisms 8(4), 540 (2020)
DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms8040540, (Bioelectronics)
Microalgae biotechnology has a high potential for sustainable bioproduction of diverse high-value biomolecules. Some of the main bottlenecks in cell-based bioproduction, and more specifically in microalgae-based bioproduction, are due to insufficient methods for rapid and efficient cell characterization, which contributes to having only a few industrially established microalgal species in commercial use. Dielectrophoresis-based microfluidic devices have been long established as promising tools for label-free handling, characterization, and separation of broad ranges of cells. The technique is based on differences in dielectric properties and sizes, which results in different degrees of cell movement under an applied inhomogeneous electrical field. The method has also earned interest for separating microalgae based on their intrinsic properties, since their dielectric properties may significantly change during bioproduction, in particular for lipid-producing species. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of dielectrophoresis-based microfluidic devices that are used for handling, characterization, and separation of microalgae. Additionally, we provide a perspective on related areas of research in cell-based bioproduction that can benefit from dielectrophoresis-based microdevices. This work provides key information that will be useful for microalgae researchers to decide whether dielectrophoresis and which method is most suitable for their particular application.

(3) Investigation of the Oxidation Behavior of Graphene/Ge(001) Versus Graphene/Ge(110) Systems
F. Akhtar, J. Dabrowski, M. Lisker, Y. Yamamoto, A. Mai, Ch. Wenger, M. Lukosius
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 12(2), 3188 (2020)
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b18448, (Graphen)
The oxidation behavior of Ge(001) and Ge(110) surfaces underneath the CVD grown graphene films has been investigated experimentally and interpreted on the basis of ab initio calculations. Freshly grown samples were exposed to air for more than seven months and periodically monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation of Ge(110) started with incubation time of several days, during which the oxidation rate was supposedly exponential. After an ultrathin oxide grew, the oxidation continued with a slow but constant rate. No incubation was detected for Ge(001). The oxide thickness was initially proportional to the square root of time. After two weeks the rate saturated at a value fourfold higher than that for Ge(110). We argue that after the initial phase, the oxidation is limited by the diffusion of oxidizing species through atomic-size openings at graphene domain boundaries and is influenced by the areal density and by the structural quality of the boundaries, whereby the latter determines the initial behavior. Prolonged exposure affected the surface topography and reduced the compressive strain in graphene, from ~ –0.15% to ~ 0.0% on Ge(001) and from ~ –1% to ~ –0.5% on Ge(110). In the last step, both the air-exposed samples were annealed in vacuum at 850⁰C. After annealing, the oxidation of Ge substrates through graphene was reversed by removing the oxygen atoms and thus restoring the original status of graphene/Ge systems. These findings might constitute an important step towards further optimization of graphene/Ge systems.

(4) Second Generation of Optical IC-Backside Protection Structure
E. Amini, T. Kiyan, N. Herfurth, A. Beyreuther, C. Boit, J.-P. Seifert
Proc. 27th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/IPFA49335.2020.9261025

(5) Analysis and Monolithic Implementation of Differential Transimpedance Amplifiers
H. Andrade, A. Maharry, T. Hirokawa, L. Valenzuela, S. Pinna, St. Simon, C.L. Schow, J.F. Buckwalter
IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology 38(16), 4409 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2020.2990107
We present a comparison of design trade-offs for transimpedance, sensitivity, DC voltage offset cancellation, group-delay variation (GDV), common-mode rejection, and overload for transimpedance amplifiers (TIA) based on balanced, unbalanced, and pseudodifferential topologies. The TIAs are implemented monolithically in the IHP 250-nm SiGe BiCMOS EPIC process (fT = 190 GHz). Measurement results shown here support data rates to 50 Gb/s with BER better than 10-10 . The power consumption of the TIAs is 54 mW for TIA designs that approach 1 pJ/b.

(6) Comparison of Three Monolithically Integrated TIA Topologies for 50 Gb/s OOK and PAM4
H. Andrade, A. Maharry, T. Hirokawa, L. Valenzuela, St. Simon, C.L. Schow, J.F. Buckwalter
Proc. SPIE Optical Interconnects XX (2020), 11286, 112860W (2020)
DOI: 10.1117/12.2548762

(7) Highly Sensitive Capacitive Sensor Based on Injection Locked Oscillators with ppm Sensing Resolution
M. Babay, C. Hallepee, C. Dalmay, B. Barelaud, E.C. Durmaz, C. Baristiran Kaynak, M. Kaynak, D. Cordeau, A. Pothier
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2020), 456 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/IMS30576.2020.9223884, (SUMCASTEC)

(8) Design and Test of Silicon Photonic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for Data Transmission Applications
D. Badoni, R. Gunnella, A. Salamon, V. Bonaiuto, V. Liberali, G. Salina, F. De Matteis, A. Mai, M. Salvato, L. Colavecchi, G. Paulozzi, F. Sargeni, G. Di Giuseppe, P. Prosposito, A. Stabile, L. Frontini, P. Steglich
Proc. Italian Conference on Optics and Photonics (ICOP 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ICOP49690.2020.9300319

(9) Characterization and Tests of Different Mach-Zehnder Silicon Photonic Modulator Configurations
D. Badoni, V. Bonaiuto, M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, G. Di Giuseppe, L. Frontini, R. Gunnella, V. Liberali, A. Mai, G. Paoluzzi, P. Prosposito, A. Salamon, G. Salina, F. Sargeni, S. Schrader, A. Stabile, P. Steglich
Materials Research Proceedings 16, 1 (2020)
DOI: 10.21741/9781644900710-1

(10) Layer Transfer Process Development for SiGe Based Microbolometer Integration
C. Baristiran Kaynak, A. Göritz, P. Krüger, T. Voss, Y. Yamamoto, P. Heinrich, U. Saarow, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak
Proc. 8th Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ESTC48849.2020.9229812, (IHP-Sabanci Joint Lab)

(11) Thermo-Mechanical Modeling and Experimental Validation of an Uncooled Microbolometer
C. Baristiran Kaynak, A. Göritz, E.C. Durmaz, M. Wietstruck, E. Onat, A.S. Ozcan, E.R. Turkoglu, Y. Gurbuz, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meetings on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2020), 57 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF46766.2020.9040193, (IHP-Sabanci Joint Lab)

(12) Contactless Device Characterization of Transistor Structures in Silicon using Electro Optical Frequency Mapping (EOFM)
A. Beyreuther, N. Herfurth, T. Nakamura, G.G. Fischer, S. Keil, C. Boit
Microelectronics Reliability 106, 113583 (2020)
DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2020.113583
Electro-optical frequency mapping (EOFM) is sensitive to carrier densities in electronic devices. Here, parametric measurements of FET and bipolar transistor structures have been performed with EOFM. The Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) system of the FET could be characterized for strong inversion and accumulation for estimations of flatband and threshold voltage. Driving the MIS into accumulation also turns on the source/drain pn junctions into forward bias. The carrier profile of the corresponding parasitic bipolar structure is also measured with EOFM showing the different operation modes of a parasitic bipolar junction transistor and the limited performance of the unwanted bipolar parasitic under the FET. For comparison, EOFM results for a vertical high-performance heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology are included, showing clearly distinguishable results of a golden and a faulty SiGe:C HBT.

(13) Comprehensive Parametric Investigations of EOFM Measurements on Single FinFET Transistors
A. Beyreuther, N. Herfurth, E. Amini, T. Nakamura, B. Motamedi, C. Boit
Proc. 27th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/IPFA49335.2020.9260730
Electro-optical techniques are the standard techniques for contactless fault isolation in modern IC’s. And because these modern IC’s are composed of FinFETs, the understanding of Electro-Optical Frequency measurements on single FinFETs is an important addition to the general picture acquired by electro-optical techniques. Electro-Optical Frequency Mapping (EOFM) is a destruction-free fault isolation method, that has been successfully used, among others, on single silicon transistors, metal-oxide-semiconductor structures and bipolar transistors. In this work, a parametric study of EOFM measurements of single n-type and p-type FinFETs has been performed. Nominal dynamic operations, as well as the behavior of the respective terminals have been studied. Furthermore, EOFM signals could be successfully acquired under subthreshold conditions for both types of transistors. In a last step, the FinFET devices have been studied under different back bias conditions.

(14) A Switchless SiGe BiCMOS Bidirectional Amplifier for Wideband Radar Applications
C. Caliskan, M. Yazici, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II 67(10), 1844 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2019.2945862
This brief presents a switchless bidirectional amplifier (BDA) with 7-to-30 GHz of bandwidth (BW) and 11.2 dB of peak gain. Common impedance matching networks (IMN) are utilized for both directions, to form a low power and compact amplification stage. It achieves +0.58 dB/BW of a gain slope, which reaches its peak value at 21 GHz. Its output-referred 1-dB compression point (OP1dB) and group delay (GD) are measured as −2.5 dBm and 41 psec. while having ± 1.5 dB and ± 9.1 psec. variation over the defined BW. Moreover, the BDA dissipates 14 mW of power in 0.42 mm2 of area (including pads). The measurement results demonstrate that the BDA is compatible with the wideband transceiver systems. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the presented design has the best operating bandwidth with a positively sloped gain without sacrificing from the area, power consumption and other remaining RF features such as noise figure (NF).

(15) Advanced Thermal Modeling of IC – Package Interaction
Z. Cao, M. Stocchi, M. Wietstruck, F. Garbuglia, D. Pincini, M. Kaynak
Proc. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS 2020), 326 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/RWS45077.2020.9050057

(16) Strong Electron-Phonon Interaction in 2D Vertical Homovalent III-V Singularities
L. Chen, O. Skibitzki, L. Pedesseau, A. Létoublon, J. Stervinou, R. Bernard, C. Levallois, R. Piron, M. Perrin, M.A. Schubert, A. Moréac, O. Durand, T. Schroeder, N. Bertru, J. Even, Y. Léger, C. Cornet
ACS Nano 14(10), 13127 (2020)
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c04702
Highly polar materials are usually preferred over weakly polar ones to study strong electron-phonon interactions and its fascinating properties. Here, we report on the achievement of simultaneous confinement of charge carriers and phonons at the vicinity of a 2D vertical homovalent singularity (antiphase boundary, (APB)) in an (In, Ga)P/SiGe/Si sample. The impact of the electron-phonon interaction on the photoluminescence processes is then clarified, by combining transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ab initio calculations, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence experiments. 2D localization and layer group symmetry properties of homovalent electronic states and phonons are studied by first principles methods, leading to the prediction of a type II band alignment between the APB and the surrounding semiconductor matrix. A Huang-Rhys factor of 8 is finally experimentally determined for the APB emission line, underlining that a large and unusually strong electron-phonon coupling can be achieved by 2D vertical quantum confinement in an undoped III-V semiconductor. This work extends the concept of electron-phonon interaction to 2D vertically buried III-V homovalent nanoobjects and therefore provides different approaches for material designs, vertical carrier transport, heterostructure design on silicon and device applications with weakly polar semiconductors.

(17) Immature Cancer Cell Discrimination using Combined High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Dielectrophoresis Forces
C. Dalmay, R. Manczak, S. Saada, T. Provent, B. Bessette, A. Casciati, M. Tanori, E. Porcu, E. Rampazzo, L. Persano, C. Baristiran Kaynak, M. Kaynak, C. Palego, G. Viola, C. Merla, M. Mancuso, F. Lalloue, A. Pothier
Proc. Joint Meeting of the BioElectroMagnetics Society and the European BioElectromagnetics Association (BioEM 2020), (2020)
(SUMCASTEC)

(18) An Approach to Verify Electro-Thermal Material Stack-Up File Based on Modeling of Poly Resistors with Different Geometry
A. Datsuk, A. Balashov, W. Wichmann, F. Vater, V. Timoshenkov
Proc. IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus 2020), 2123 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/EIConRus49466.2020.9038937, (Design Kit)

(19) rEDActor - A PDK Cross-Platform Integrated Development Environment for Semiconductor Technologies
A. Datsuk, V.P. Timoshenkov
Proc. 9th All-Russia Science & Technology Conference Problems of Advanced Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems Development (MES 2020), 17 (2020)
DOI: 10.31114/2078-7707-2020-4-17-22

(20) A Monolithically Integrated Optical Bandpass Receiver in 0.25μm SiGe BiCMOS Technology for Microwave-Photonic Applications
G. Dziallas, A. Fatemi, F. Korndörfer, A. Peczek, D. Kissinger, L. Zimmermann, A. Malignaggi, G. Kahmen
Proc. IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC 2020), S12-3 (2020)
In this paper we present an optical receiver that features a bandpass characteristic and is monolithically integrated with a Germanium photodiode in a silicon photonic technology working at millimeter-wave frequencies. We achieve a large electrical 3-dB bandwidth of 62 GHz at a center-frequency of 65 GHz, 12.5 dB gain, an OP1dB of 0.4 dBm, a power consumption of 58 mW and an electro—optical 3-dB bandwidth of 20 GHz. Due to the monolithic integration and performance shown, the optical bandpass receiver appears to be the prefered solution for optoelectronic oscillators, optical antenna remoting, multi-Gbps radio-over-fiber systems and other microwave photonic applications.

(21) Scalable 60 GHz FMCW Frequency-Division Multiplexing MIMO Radar
H. Forstén, T. Kiuru, M. Hirvonen, M. Varonen, M. Kaynak
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 68(7), 2845 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2020.2980521
In this article, a 60-GHz frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system using frequency-division multiplexing for TX signal separation is presented. Four-channel transmitter and receiver chips were designed using 130 nm SiGe process. The total number of TX and RX channels can be scaled by the number of chips in the system while still maintaining phase coherence between the channels. 2-D and 3-D object localization measurements are made with four TX and eight RX channel systems. In the 2-D configuration, the radar system is capable of a 5-cm range resolution and 3.5° angular resolution.

(22) Cross-Polarization Effects in Sheared 2D Grating Couplers in a Photonic BiCMOS Technology
G. Georgieva, K. Voigt, Ch. Mai, P.M. Seiler, K. Petermann, L. Zimmermann
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 59(SO), SOOB03 (2020)
DOI: 10.35848/1347-4065/ab8e21, (PEARLS)
We investigate numerically and experimentally sheared 2D grating couplers in a photonic BiCMOS technology with a focus on their splitting behavior. Two realization forms of a waveguide-to-grating shear angle are considered. The cross-polarization used as a figure-of-merit is shown to be strongly dependent on the grating perturbation strength and is a crucial limitation not only for the grating splitting performance, but also for its coupling efficiency.

(23) Design and Performance Analysis of Integrated Focusing Grating Couplers for the Transverse-Magnetic TM00 Mode in a Photonic BiCMOS Technology
G. Georgieva, K. Voigt, A. Peczek, Ch. Mai, L. Zimmermann
Journal of the European Optical Society: Rapid Publiactions 16, 7 (2020)
DOI: 10.1186/s41476-020-00129-4
Focusing grating couplers for the excitation of the fundamental transverse-magnetic (TM) mode in integrated silicon photonic waveguides are designed and characterized under the boundary conditions of a photonic BiCMOS foundry. Two types of waveguide geometries are considered – a nanowire and a rib waveguide. Wafer-scale experimental results for nanowire TM grating couplers are in excellent agreement with numerical investigations and demonstrate a robust behavior on the wafer. The mean coupling loss and the 3σ interval are -3.9 ± 0.3 dB. The on wafer variation is three times lower than for the fundamental transverse-electric (TE) polarization. Similarly, the coupling in rib waveguides is examined as well. The results indicate that the rib waveguides require a modified geometry when designed for TM. In general, the nanowire waveguide type is more suitable for TM coupling, showing a stable and repeatable performance.

(24) A 6-mW W-Band LNA in 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS for Passive Imaging Systems
B. Gungor, E. Turkmen, M. Yazici, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
Proc. 63rd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS 2020), 436 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/MWSCAS48704.2020.9184517, (IHP-Sabanci Joint Lab)

(25) Development of the Thin TOF-PET Scanner based on Fast Monolithic Silicon Pixel Sensors
D. Hayakawa, G. Iacobucci, L. Paolozzi, P. Valerio, E. Ripiccini, M. Benoit, D. Ferrere, O. Ratib, M. Weber, D. Forshaw, A. Miucchi, Y. Bandi, R. Cardarelli, H. Rücker, M. Kaynak
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 958, 162433 (2020)
DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2019.162433
The Thin-TOF PET (TT-PET) project aims at the construction of a small-animal PET scanner based on silicon monolithic pixel sensors with 30 ps time resolution for 511 keV photons, equivalent to 100 ps time resolution for minimum ionizing particles. Iterative image reconstruction on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that the scanner can produce high signal-to-noise ratio images with good spatial resolution throughout the whole field of view. The demonstrator chip, comprising a 3 × 10 pixel matrix and a 50 ps binning TDC, was tested at the CERN SPS beam test facility. The demonstrator shows an efficiency greater than 99.9% and a time resolution for minimum ionizing particles of approximately 110 ps.

(26) An Approach to Ring Resonator Biosensing Assisted by Dielectrophoresis: Design, Simulation and Fabrication
A. Henriksson, L. Kasper, M. Jäger, P. Neubauer, M. Birkholz
Micromachines 11(11), 954 (2020)
DOI: 10.3390/mi11110954, (Bioelectronics)
The combination of extreme miniaturization with high sensitivity and the potential to be integrated in an array form on a chip has made silicon-based photonic microring resonators a very attractive research topic. As biosensors are approaching the nanoscale, analyte mass transfer and bonding kinetic have been ascribed as a crucial factor that limit their performance. In the current work we have designed a system that applies dielectrophoretic forces in addition to microfluidics to overcome the diffusion limits of conventional biosensors. Dielectrophoresis, the migration of polarized dielectric particles in a non-uniform alternating electric field, has previously successfully been applied to achieve a 1000-fold improved detection efficiency in nanopore sensing and may significantly increase the sensitivity in microring resonator biosensing. The chip design with two different electrode configurations, electric field gradient simulations and the fabrication process flow of a dielectrohoresis-enhanced microring resonator based sensor is presented. Finite element method FEM simulations calculated for both electrode configurations revealed ∇E2 values above 1017 V2m-3 around the sensing areas. This is comparable to electric field gradients previously reported for successful interaction with larger molecule such as proteins and antibodies.

(27) Miniature Switchable Millimeter-Wave BiCMOS Low-Noise Amplifier at 120/140 GHz using an HBT Switch
J. Heredia, M. Ribó, L. Pradell, S. Tolunay Wipf, A. Göritz, M. Wietstruck, Ch. Wipf, M. Kaynak
Nanodevices for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Applications, 1st Edition, Editor: I. Huynen, Chapter. Miniature Switchable Millimeter-Wave BiCMOS Low-Noise Amplifier at 120/140 GHz using an HBT Switch, MDPI, 3 (2020) 
DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03936-223-3

(28) A Modular MIMO Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radar System for Space Applications and its Components
M. Hrobak, K. Thurn, J. Moll, M. Hossain, A. Shrestha, T. Al-Sawaf, D. Stoppel, N.G. Weimann, A. Raemer, W. Heinrich, J. Martinez, M. Vossiek, T.K. Johansen, V. Krozer, M. Resch, J. Bosse, M. Sterns, K. Loebbicke, S. Zorn, M.H. Eissa, M. Lisker, F. Herzel, R. Miesen, K. Vollmann
International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves (2020)
DOI: 10.1007/s10762-020-00736-9, (MIMIRAWE)
This article presents the design and prototyping of components for a modular multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) millimeter-wave radar for space applications. A single radar panel consists of 8 transmitters (TX) and 8 receivers (RX), which can be placed several times on the satellite to realize application-specific radar apertures and hence different cross-range resolutions. The radar chirp signals are generated by SiGe:C BiCMOS direct-digital-synthesizers (DDS) in the frequency range of 1 to 10.5GHz with a chirp repetition rate of < 1μs within each TX and RX. The latter allows for easy interfaces in the MHz range in between the TX/RX units and therefore optimized 2-D sparse antenna arrays with rather large distances in between the TX/RX antennas. Furthermore, this allows for ideally linear frequency modulated continuous-waveforms (FMCW) in conjunction with phase-shift-keying (PSK) radar signals and enables simultaneous operation of all TX when code division multiplex (CDMA) modulation schemes are applied. Comparably low complexity of the TX/RX units has been achieved by applying straightforward frequency plans to signal generation and detection but comes with challenging requirements for the individual active and passive components. Tackled by thin film technology on alumina and the recently developed SiGe and InP semiconductor technologies, which have been further optimized in terms of process maturity and space qualification. Upconversion and downconversion to and from 85 to 94.5GHz are performed by double balanced Gilbert mixers realized with InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology (DHBT) and 42-GHz local oscillator signals from SiGe:C BiCMOS VCO synthesizer using phase-locked-loops (PLL). InP DHBT power amplifiers and low-noise amplifiers allow for output power levels of 15dBm and > 30dB gain with noise figure values of 9dB, respectively. The MIMO radar utilizes patch antenna arrays on organic multilayer printed circuit boards (PCB) with 18dBi gain and 18º half power beamwidth (HPBW). Generation of power supply and control signals, analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), and radar signal processing are provided centrally to each panel. The radar supports detection and tracking of satellites in distances up to 1000m and image generation up to 20m, which is required to support orbital maneuvers like satellite rendezvous and docking for non-cooperative satellites.

(29) MonPicoAD - A Monolithic Picosecond Avalanche Detector
G. Iacobucci, P. Valerio, L. Paolozzi, E. Charbon, F. Martinelli, R. Cardarelli, M. Kanyak, H. Rücker
Proc. ATTRACT Digital Conference 2020, 1 (2020)

(30) Tradeoffs Between RF Performance and SET Robustness in Low-Noise Amplifiers in a Complementary SiGe BiCMOS Platform
A. Ildefonso, G.N. Tzintzarov, N.E. Lourenco, Z.E. Fleetwood, A. Khachatrian, S.P. Buchner, D. McMorrow, J.H. Warner, M. Kaynak, J.D. Cressler
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 67(7), 1521 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2020.2996298
Low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) are necessary components for any communications system. Single-event transients (SETs) induced by energetic particles in space can corrupt the data in an RF receiver. Using p-n-p silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), instead of their more common n-p-n counterparts, has been shown to be an effective mitigation technique in digital, analog, and RF circuits. Since p-n-p SiGe HBTs tend to have lower performance than n-p-n SiGe HBTs, in this article, the tradeoffs between performance and SET robustness have been evaluated through the use of simulations. Two LNAs were designed using an algorithmic design technique: one using only n-p-n SiGe HBTs, and the other using only p-n-p devices. The n-p-n LNA had higher peak gain and lower noise figure at the center frequency of 5 GHz when compared to the p-n-p LNA, by 3.2 and 0.4 dB, respectively. However, the n-p-n LNA also produced transients with amplitudes larger than the p-n-p LNA across all simulated linear energy transfers. Although the p-n-p LNA has lower overall performance, it is also more robust to SETs. Thus, the choice between using n-p-n and p-n-p SiGe HBTs for an RF design will depend on application requirements.

(31) Surface and Structural Analysis of Epitaxial La1-xSrx(Mn1-yCoy)zO3 Films
S. Kaciulis, E. Bolli, A. Mezzi, M. Vagner, V. Plausinaitiene, S. Kersulis, N. Zurauskiene, R. Lukose
Surface and Interface Analysis 52(12), 900 (2020)
DOI: 10.1002/sia.6767
In the present study were studied the ferromagnetic La1−xSrx (Mn1−yCoy)zO3 (LSMCO) films with Co content y = 0 to 0.18, grown on LaAlO3 substrates by advantageous pulsed‐injection metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique. The LSMCO films exhibit negative colossal magnetoresistance effect; therefore, they are interesting as potential material for the applications in magnetic field sensing. The changes of lattice volume in the investigated LSMCO films were monitored by X‐ray diffraction measurements revealing a transition from tensile to compressive strain with increase of Co content. Additionally, from the atomic force microscopy images, the surface smoothening with increase of y was determined. Despite the reduction of the out‐of‐plane lattice parameter of LSMCO, the increase of lattice volume in the whole Co‐doping range was observed. The X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with Ar+ ion sputtering was used for the investigation of chemical composition of the LSMCO films and demonstrated the change and redistribution of oxidation states of Mn and Co on the surface and in the volume of the films. Regardless of the structural changes and charge distribution of Co and Mn cations, epitaxial LSMCO exhibits ferromagnetic properties and magnetoresistance values increases with augmenting Co content in the range of y = 0 to 0.18.

(32) A 7-Bit 0.22 dB Step Variable Attenuator with Flat States and Low Phase Variation at 1.5–13.5 GHz using iNMOS Switches
H. Kandis, A. Burak, M. Yazici, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS45731.2020.9181165

(33) A 0.9 mW Compact Power Detector with 30 dB Dynamic Range for Automotive Radar Applications
H. Kandis, B. Gungor, M. Yazici, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
Proc. 63rd IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS 2020), 541 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/MWSCAS48704.2020.9184669

(34) An Accurate and Computationally Efficient Large-Signal SPICE Model for Depletion-Type Silicon Ring Modulators Including Temperature Dependence
M. Kim, St. Lischke, Ch. Mai, L. Zimmermann, W.-Y. Choi
46th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ECOC48923.2020.9333289

(35) A Fully Integrated 25 Gb/s Si Ring Modulator Transmitter with a Temperature Controller
M. Kim, M.-H. Kim, Y. Jo, H.-K. Kim, St. Lischke, Ch. Mai, L. Zimmermann, W.-Y. Choi
Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC 2020), T3H.7 (2020)
DOI: 10.1364/OFC.2020.T3H.7

(36) A Monolithically-Integrated 2×25-Gb/s Si Photonic WDM Receiver with Thermally-Tunable Ring-Resonator Filters
H.-K. Kim, Y. Jo, M. Kim, H.-Y. Jung, Ch. Mai, St. Lischke, L. Zimmermann, W.-Y. Choi
Proc. SPIE Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XXII (2020), 11284, 112840I (2020)
DOI: 10.1117/12.2545497

(37) A Monolithic Bipolar CMOS Electronic-Plasmonic High-Speed Transmitter
U. Koch, C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, Y. Fedoryshyn, C. Hoessbacher W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, B.I. Bitachon, A. Josten, M. Ayata, H. Xu, D.L. Elder, L.R. Dalton, E. Mentovich, P. Bakopoulos, St. Lischke, A. Krüger, L. Zimmermann, D. Tsiokos, N. Pleros, M. Möller, J. Leuthold
Nature Electronics 3, 338 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s41928-020-0417-9, (plaCMOS)
To address the challenge of increasing data rates, next-generation optical communication networks will require the co-integration of electronics and photonics. Heterogeneous integration of these technologies has shown promise, but will eventually become bandwidth-limited. Faster monolithic approaches will therefore be needed, but monolithic approaches using complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) electronics and silicon photonics are typically limited by their underlying electronic or photonic technologies. Here, we report a monolithically integrated electro-optical transmitter that can achieve symbol rates beyond 100 GBd. Our approach combines advanced bipolar CMOS with silicon plasmonics, and addresses key challenges in monolithic integration through co-design of the electronic and plasmonic layers, including thermal design, packaging and a nonlinear organic electro-optic material. To illustrate the potential of our technology, we develop two modulator concepts—an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator and a silicon-plasmonic modulator with photonic routing—both directly processed onto the bipolar CMOS electronics.

(38) Plasmonics - High-Speed Photonics for Co-Integration with Electronics
U. Koch, C. Uhl, H. Hettrich, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Moor, M. Baumann, C. Hoessbacher, W. Heni, B. Baeuerle, B.I. Bitachon, A. Josten, M. Ayata, H. Xu, D.L. Elder, L.R. Dalton, E. Mentovich, P. Bakopoulos, St. Lischke, A. Krüger, L. Zimmermann, D. Tsiokos, N. Pleros, M. Möller, J. Leuthold
Proc. 52nd International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM 2020), E-10-01 (2020)

(39) Ge Photodiode with -3 dB OE Bandwidth of 110 GHz for PIC and ePIC Platforms
St. Lischke, A. Peczek, F. Korndörfer, Ch. Mai, H. Haisch, M. Koenigsmann, M. Rudisile, D. Steckler, F. Goetz, M. Fraschke, St. Marschmeyer, A. Krüger, Y. Yamamoto, D. Schmidt, U. Saarow, P. Heinrich, A. Kroh, M.A. Schubert, J. Katzer, P. Kulse, A. Trusch, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 66th IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2020), 135 (2020)
(PEARLS)

(40) Ge Photodiode with -3 dB OE Bandwidth of 110 GHz for PIC and ePIC Platforms
St. Lischke, A. Peczek, F. Korndörfer, Ch. Mai, H. Haisch, M. Koenigsmann, M. Rudisile, D. Steckler, F. Goetz, M. Fraschke, St. Marschmeyer, A. Krüger, Y. Yamamoto, D. Schmidt, U. Saarow, P. Heinrich, A. Kroh, M.A. Schubert, J. Katzer, P. Kulse, A. Trusch, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 66th IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2020), 135 (2020)
(plaCMOS)

(41) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 9th International SiGe, Ge, & Related Compounds: Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium (ECS Meeting 2020), 1746 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/MA2020-02241746mtgabs, (DIMENSION)

(42) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 9th International SiGe, Ge, & Related Compounds: Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium (ECS Meeting 2020), 1746 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/MA2020-02241746mtgabs, (SPEED)

(43) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 9th International SiGe, Ge, & Related Compounds: Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium (ECS Meeting 2020), 1746 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/MA2020-02241746mtgabs, (PEARLS)

(44) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
ECS Transactions 98(5), 315 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/09805.0315ecst, (SPEED)
A Ge photodiode, directly coupled to a silicon nitride waveguide, showing more than 67 GHz bandwidth is demonstrated. This paves the way for utterly new SiN waveguide platform based applications. By light feeding through SiN waveguides, the new photodiode can also be a key enabler for a bulk-Si based, monolithically integrated electronic-photonic integrated circuit platform. We show that the new devices, fabricated on bulk-Si, provide the same bandwidths as Si waveguide coupled SOI based reference Ge photodiodes. However, their O-band responsivity is 0.3 A/W, which is about three times lower compared to the SOI wave-guide coupled devices. We attribute this effect mainly to substrate leakage, being confirmed by simulations. We demonstrate that bulk-Si based diodes can be fabricated with high yield and low metrics tolerances.

(45) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
ECS Transactions 98(5), 315 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/09805.0315ecst, (plaCMOS)
A Ge photodiode, directly coupled to a silicon nitride waveguide, showing more than 67 GHz bandwidth is demonstrated. This paves the way for utterly new SiN waveguide platform based applications. By light feeding through SiN waveguides, the new photodiode can also be a key enabler for a bulk-Si based, monolithically integrated electronic-photonic integrated circuit platform. We show that the new devices, fabricated on bulk-Si, provide the same bandwidths as Si waveguide coupled SOI based reference Ge photodiodes. However, their O-band responsivity is 0.3 A/W, which is about three times lower compared to the SOI wave-guide coupled devices. We attribute this effect mainly to substrate leakage, being confirmed by simulations. We demonstrate that bulk-Si based diodes can be fabricated with high yield and low metrics tolerances.

(46) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
ECS Transactions 98(5), 315 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/09805.0315ecst, (DIMENSION)
A Ge photodiode, directly coupled to a silicon nitride waveguide, showing more than 67 GHz bandwidth is demonstrated. This paves the way for utterly new SiN waveguide platform based applications. By light feeding through SiN waveguides, the new photodiode can also be a key enabler for a bulk-Si based, monolithically integrated electronic-photonic integrated circuit platform. We show that the new devices, fabricated on bulk-Si, provide the same bandwidths as Si waveguide coupled SOI based reference Ge photodiodes. However, their O-band responsivity is 0.3 A/W, which is about three times lower compared to the SOI wave-guide coupled devices. We attribute this effect mainly to substrate leakage, being confirmed by simulations. We demonstrate that bulk-Si based diodes can be fabricated with high yield and low metrics tolerances.

(47) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
ECS Transactions 98(5), 315 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/09805.0315ecst, (PEARLS)
A Ge photodiode, directly coupled to a silicon nitride waveguide, showing more than 67 GHz bandwidth is demonstrated. This paves the way for utterly new SiN waveguide platform based applications. By light feeding through SiN waveguides, the new photodiode can also be a key enabler for a bulk-Si based, monolithically integrated electronic-photonic integrated circuit platform. We show that the new devices, fabricated on bulk-Si, provide the same bandwidths as Si waveguide coupled SOI based reference Ge photodiodes. However, their O-band responsivity is 0.3 A/W, which is about three times lower compared to the SOI wave-guide coupled devices. We attribute this effect mainly to substrate leakage, being confirmed by simulations. We demonstrate that bulk-Si based diodes can be fabricated with high yield and low metrics tolerances.

(48) Directly Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Coupled Ge Photodiode for Non-SOI PIC and Epic Platforms
St. Lischke, D. Knoll, Ch. Mai, K. Voigt, A. Hesse, G. Georgieva, A. Peczek, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 9th International SiGe, Ge, & Related Compounds: Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium (ECS Meeting 2020), 1746 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/MA2020-02241746mtgabs, (plaCMOS)

(49) Preparation of Germanium-on-Insulator (GOI) Wafers by Means of Layer Transfer Technique
M. Lisker, A. Krüger, P. Krüger, T. Voß, R. Lukose, Y. Yamamoto, O. Fursenko, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak
Proc. 22nd Design, Test, Integration & Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/DTIP51112.2020.9139149, (GIMMIK)

(50) Influence of Specific Forming Algorithms on the Device-to-Device Variability of Memristive Al-Doped HfO2 Arrays
M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, Ch. Wenger
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 38(1), 013201 (2020)
DOI: 10.1116/1.5126936, (NeuroMem)
In this work, the influence of specific switching algorithms on device-to-device (D2D) variability of the forming process, in an integrated Al-doped HfO2 1T-1R 4 kbit RRAM array is investigated. The resistive devices are programmed by using two different algorithms: the incremental step pulse and verify algorithm (ISPVA) at different temperatures and the constant amplitude pulse and verify algorithm (CAPVA) at different voltage amplitudes. The stabilized forming currents of both algorithms are compared in terms of their distributions, yields and dispersions. The D2D distributions of the forming voltages of ISPVA and the forming times of CAPVA are fitted by Weibull distributions. The obtained Weibull parameters provide a link with the statistics governing the process. Finally, we discuss the importance of the ISPVA, CAPVA, temperature and voltage amplitudes to improve the reliability of the forming process.

(51) Back-Side Release of Slot Waveguides for Integration of Functional Materials in a Silicon Photonic Technology with Full BEOL
Ch. Mai, P. Steglich, M. Fraschke, A. Mai
IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology 10(9), 1569 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TCPMT.2020.3011149
In this work, we developed a process to release optical waveguides locally from the back side of a silicon-on-insulator wafer to enable a connection and interaction between organic materials and photonic devices. The release procedure is realized by a local back side etch followed by a chemical wet etch. Furthermore, certain process steps for a controlled removal of the buried oxide below the silicon device layer are introduced to protect the back-end of line (BEOL) and to guarantee a compatibility with a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology. The presented approach gives perspective to a hybrid integration of organic materials into a PIC technology with a full back-end of line for high-speed silicon-organic hybrid modulators and label-free biosensors.

(52) Temperature Dependence of Strain–Phonon Coefficient in Epitaxial Ge/Si(001): A Comprehensive Analysis
C.L. Manganelli, M. Virgilio, O. Skibitzki, M. Salvalaglio, D. Spirito, P. Zaumseil, Y. Yamamoto, M. Montanari, W.M. Klesse, G. Capellini
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 51(6), 989 (2020)
DOI: 10.1002/jrs.5860
We investigate the temperature dependence of the Ge Raman mode strain–phonon coefficient in Ge/Si heteroepitaxial layers. By analyzing the temperature‐dependent evolution of both the Raman Ge─Ge line and of the Ge lattice strain, we obtain a linear dependence of the strain–phonon coefficient as a function of temperature. Our findings provide an efficient method for capturing the temperature‐dependent strain relaxation mechanism in heteroepitaxial systems. Furthermore, we show that the rather large variability reported in the literature for the strain–phonon coefficient values might be due to the local heating of the sample due to the excitation laser used in μ‐Raman experiments.

(53) A Unified Aging Compact Model for Hot Carrier Degradation under Mixed-Mode and Reverse E-B Stress in Complementary SiGe HBTs
C. Mukherjee, G.G. Fischer, F. Marc, M. Couret, T. Zimmer, C. Maneux
Solid State Electronics 172, 107900 (2020)
DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2019.107635, (SIGEREL)
This paper presents an accurate, comprehensive and physics-based aging compact model for stress-induced degradation due to hot-carrier generation and oxide trapping in advanced complementary NPN and PNP SiGe HBTs. The analytical model equations are derived from the solution of reaction-diffusion theory and Fick’s law of diffusion combined with oxide trapping mechanism under accelerated stress conditions. The model accuracy has been validated against results from long-term aging tests performed close to the safe-operating-areas of an advanced complementary 0.25 μm BiCMOS technology. Degradation asymmetry observed between NPN and PNP devices is accurately captured by this unified aging compact model. This study highlights the challenges of predicting degradation of complementary circuits and thereby improving its functionalities by designing better-matched NPN and PNP HBTs.

(54) A Physical and Versatile Aging Compact Model for Hot Carrier Degradation in SiGe HBTs under Dynamic Operating Conditions
C. Mukherjee, F. Marc, M. Couret, G.G. Fischer, M. Jaoul, D. Celi, K. Aufinger, T. Zimmer, C. Maneux
Solid State Electronics 163, 107635 (2020)
DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2019.107635, (SIGEREL)
This paper presents a new physics-based compact model implementation for interface state creation due to hot-carrier degradation in advanced SiGe HBTs. This model accounts for dynamic stress bias conditions through a combination of the solution of reaction-diffusion theory and Fick’s law of diffusion. The model reflects transistor degradation in terms of base recombination current parameters of HiCuM compact model and its accuracy has been validated against results from long-term aging tests performed close to the safe-operating-areas of various HBT technologies.

(55) A Physical and Versatile Aging Compact Model for Hot Carrier Degradation in SiGe HBTs under Dynamic Operating Conditions
C. Mukherjee, F. Marc, M. Couret, G.G. Fischer, M. Jaoul, D. Celi, K. Aufinger, T. Zimmer, C. Maneux
Solid State Electronics 163, 107635 (2020)
DOI: 10.1016/j.sse.2019.107635, (Taranto)
This paper presents a new physics-based compact model implementation for interface state creation due to hot-carrier degradation in advanced SiGe HBTs. This model accounts for dynamic stress bias conditions through a combination of the solution of reaction-diffusion theory and Fick’s law of diffusion. The model reflects transistor degradation in terms of base recombination current parameters of HiCuM compact model and its accuracy has been validated against results from long-term aging tests performed close to the safe-operating-areas of various HBT technologies.

(56) BEACON: In the Next Generation Ground Radars and Radio Telescopes Infrastructures – The SKA Project Opportunity
R.N. Nogueira, V.C. Duarte, J.G. Prata, G. Winzer, L. Zimmermann, R. Walker, S. Clements, M. Filipowicz, M. Napierala, T. Nasilowski, J. Crabb, L. Stampoulidis, J. Anzalchi, M.V. Drummond
Portuguese SKA White Book, 1st Edition, Editors: D. Barbosa, S. Antón, J.P. Barraca, M. Bergano, A. Correia, D. Maia, V. Ribeiro, Chapter. BEACON: In the Next Generation Ground Radars and Radio Telescopes Infrastructures – The SKA Project Opportunity, UA Editora – Universidade de Aveiro, 165 (2020)

(57) Time Resolution and Power Consumption of a Monolithic Silicon Pixel Prototype in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
L. Paolozzi, R. Cardarelli, S. Débieux, Y. Favre, D. Ferrère, S. Gonzalez-Sevilla, G. Iacobucci, M. Kaynak, F. Martinelli, M. Nessi, H. Rücker, I. Sanna, D.M.S. Sultan, P. Valerio, E. Zaffaroni
Journal of Instrumentation 15, P11025 (2020)
DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/15/11/P11025
SiGe BiCMOS technology can be used to produce ultra-fast, low-power silicon pixel sensors that provide state-of-the-art time resolution even without an internal gain mechanism. The development of such sensors requires the identification of the main factors that may degrade the timing performance and the characterisation of the dependance of the sensor time resolution on the amplifier power consumption. Measurements with a 90Sr source of a prototype sensor produced in SG13G2 technology from IHP Microelectronics, shows a time resolution of 140 ps at an amplifier current of 7 μA and 45 ps at higher power consumption. A full simulation shows that the resolution on the measurement of the signal time-over-threshold, used to correct for time walk, is the main factor affecting the timing performance.

(58) Comparison of Cut-Back Method and Optical Backscatter Reflectometry for Wafer Level Waveguide Characterization
A. Peczek, Ch. Mai, G. Winzer, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 33rd International Conference on Microelectronic Test Structures (ICMTS 2020), 9.1 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ICMTS48187.2020.9107905, (PEARLS)

(59) Comparison of Cut-Back Method and Optical Backscatter Reflectometry for Wafer Level Waveguide Characterization
A. Peczek, Ch. Mai, G. Winzer, L. Zimmermann
Proc. 33rd International Conference on Microelectronic Test Structures (ICMTS 2020), 9.1 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ICMTS48187.2020.9107905, (SPEED)

(60) Behavioral Modeling of Multilevel HfO2-based Memristors for Neuromorphic Circuit Simulation
A.J. Perez-Avila, G. González-Cordero, E. Pérez, E. Pérez-Bosch Quesada, M.K. Mahadevaiah, Ch. Wenger, J.B. Roldan, F. Jimenez-Molinos
Proc. 35th Conference on Design of Circuits and Integrated Systems (DCIS 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/DCIS51330.2020.9268652

(61) Evaluation of the Sensitivity of RRAM Cells to Optical Fault Injection Attacks
D. Petryk, Z. Dyka, E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, I. Kabin, Ch. Wenger, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 23rd EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design (DSD 2020), Special Session: Architecture and Hardware for Security Applications (AHSA), 238 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/DSD51259.2020.00047, (RESCUE)

(62) Metal Fillers as Potential Low Cost Countermeasure against Optical Fault Injection Attacks
D. Petryk, Z. Dyka, J. Katzer, P. Langendörfer
Proc. 18th IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS 2020), 125 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/EWDTS50664.2020.9225092, (RESCUE)

(63) Substrate Integrated Waveguide Bandpass Filters Implemented on Silicon Interposer for Terahertz Applications
G. Prigent, A.-L. Franc, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2020), 595 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/IMS30576.2020.9223781

(64) A QPSK 110-Gb/s Polarization-Diversity MIMO Wireless Link with a 220–255 GHz Tunable LO in a SiGe HBT Technology
P. Rodriguez-Vazquez, J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, U.R. Pfeiffer
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 68(9), 3834 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2020.2986196
In this article, a polarization-diversity technique multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is demonstrated to double the spectral efficiency of a line-of-sight quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) wireless link at 220–255 GHz with a pair of highly integrated single-chip transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) front-end modules in 0.13-μm SiGe HBT technology ( fT/ fmax = 350/550 GHz) exploiting only a low-cost wire-bonded chip-on-board packaging solution for high-speed baseband (BB) signals. Both TX and RX chips accommodate two independent fundamentally operated direct-conversion in-phase and quadrature (IQ) paths with separately tunable on-chip multiplier-based (×16) local oscillator (LO) generation paths driven from a single external highly stable 13.75–16-GHz frequency synthesizer. On the RX side, a mixer-first architecture is implemented to improve the symmetry between upper and lower sidebands (USB and LSB) at the cost of an increased noise figure (NF), whereas, on the TX chip, each upconversion mixer is followed by a gain–bandwidth (BW)-limited fourstage power amplifier (PA) to support the link budget at a meter distance. Next, two independent IQ data streams from the upconversion/downconversion paths on each chip are directed to a common lens-coupled broadband on-chip slot antenna system. This way, two orthogonal circular polarizations [left-handed circular polarization (LHCP) and right-handed circular polarization (RHCP)] can be transmitted with sufficient isolation for link operation without the need for a high-speed depolarizer in the BB for any relative orientation between TX and RX modules. The antenna combined with a 9-mm diameter Si-lens provides a directivity of 23.5–27 dBi at 210–270 GHz for each of the modules. This, along with a peak radiated power of 7.5 dBm/ch from the TX module, and the cascaded conversion gain (CG)/single sideband (SSB) NF of 18/18 dB/ch for the RX module followed by a broadband amplifier (PSPL5882) from Tektronix allowed successful transmission of two independent QPSK data streams with an aggregate speed of 110 and 80 Gb/s over 1 and 2 m, respectively, at 230 GHz with a board-level limited channel BB bandwidth (BW) of 13.5 GHz.

(65) Corrections to “A QPSK 110-Gb/s Polarization-Diversity MIMO Wireless Link with a 220–255 GHz Tunable LO in a SiGe HBT Technology”
P. Rodriguez-Vazquez, J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, U.R. Pfeiffer
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 68(9), 3783 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2020.3005301

(66) Investigation of Inter-Modal Four Wave Mixing in p-i-n Diode Assisted SOI Waveguides
G. Ronniger, St. Lischke, Ch. Mai, L. Zimmermann, K. Petermann
Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals Meeting Series (SUM 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/SUM48678.2020.9161068

(67) Ge(Sn) Nano-Island/Si Heterostructure Photodetectors with Plasmonic Antennas
V. Schlykow, C.L. Manganelli, F. Römer, C. Clausen, L. Augel, J. Schulze, J. Katzer, M.A. Schubert, B. Witzigmann, T. Schroeder, G. Capellini, I.A. Fischer
Nanotechnology 31(34), 345203 (2020)
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ab91ef
We report on photodetection in deep subwavelength Ge(Sn) nano-islands on Si nano-pillar substrates, in which self-aligned nano-antennas in the Al contact metal are used to enhance light absorption by means of local surface plasmon resonances. The impact of parameters such as substrate doping and device geometry on the measured responsivities are investigated and our experimental results are supported by simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of the electromagnetic fields. Comparatively high optical responsivities of about 0.1 A W−1 are observed as a consequence of the excitation of localized surface plasmons, making our nano-island photodetectors interesting for applications in which size reduction is essential.

(68) Design Concept for Radiation-Hardening of Triple Modular Redundancy TSPC Flip-Flops
O. Schrape, M. Andjelkovic, A. Breitenreiter, A. Balashov, M. Krstic
Proc. 23rd EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design (DSD 2020), 616 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/DSD51259.2020.00101, (strahlungsfeste Schaltkeise (Radiation))

(69) VCSEL-Based Silicon Photonic Interconnect Technologies
P. Seiler, B. Tillack, L. Zimmermann
Semiconductor Nanophotonics, 1st Edition, Editors: M. Kneissl, A. Knorr, S. Reitzenstein, A. Hoffmann, Chapter 11. VCSEL-Based Silicon Photonic Interconnect Technologies, Springer, 194, 427 (2020)
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-35656-9_11, (DFG SFB-787)

(70) 56 GBaud O-Band Transmission using a Photonic BiCMOS Coherent Receiver
P.M. Seiler, A. Peczek, G. Winzer, K. Voigt, St. Lischke, A. Fatemi, L. Zimmermann
46th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ECOC48923.2020.9333218, (PEARLS)

(71) Reduction of Threading Dislocation Density Beyond the Saturation Limit by Optimized Reverse Grading
O. Skibitzki, M.H. Zoellner, F. Rovaris, M.A. Schubert, Y. Yamamoto, L. Persichetti, L. Di Gaspare, M. De Seta, R. Gatti, F. Montalenti, G. Capellini
Physical Review Materials 4(10), 103403 (2020)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.4.103403, (FLASH)
The threading dislocation density (TDD) in plastically relaxed Ge/Si(001) heteroepitaxial films is commonly observed to progressively decrease with their thickness, owing to mutual annihilation. However, there exists a saturation limit, known as the geometrical limit, beyond which a further decrease of the TDD in the Ge film is hindered. Here, we show that such limit can be overcome in SiGe/Ge/Si heterostructures thanks to the beneficial role of the second interface. Indeed, we show that Si0.06 Ge0.94 /Ge/Si(001) films display a TDD remarkably lower than the saturation limit of Ge/Si(001). Such result is interpreted with the help of Dislocation Dynamics simulations. The reduction of TDD is attributed to the enhanced mobility acquired by pre-existing threading dislocations after bending at the new interface to release the strain in the upper layer. Importantly, we demonstrate that the low TDD achieved in Si0.06 Ge0.94 /Ge/Si layers is preserved also when a second, relaxed Ge layer is subsequently deposited. This makes the present reverse-grading technique of direct interest also for achieving a low TDD in pure-Ge films.

(72) A 24-48 GHz Wideband Frequency Tripler in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
H. Son, D. Kim, Y. Zhao, R. Al Hadi, M. Kaynak, J.-S. Rieh
Proc. Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC 2020), 101 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/APMC47863.2020.9331677

(73) Introductory Chapter: Electromagnetic Propagation and Waveguides in Photonics and Microwave Engineering
P. Steglich
Electromagnetic Propagation and Waveguides in Photonics and Microwave Engineering, 1st Edition, Editor: P. Steglich, Introductory Chapter: Electromagnetic Propagation and Waveguides in Photonics and Microwave Engineering, IntechOpen, 1 (2020)
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93419

(74) CMOS-Compatible Silicon Photonic Sensor for Refractive Index Sensing using Local Back-Side Release
P. Steglich, S. Bondarenko, Ch. Mai, M. Paul, M. Weller, A. Mai
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 32(19), 1241 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2020.3019114, (BioPIC)
Silicon photonic sensors are promising candidates for lab-on-a-chip solutions with versatile applications and scalable production prospects using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication methods. However, the widespread use has been hindered because the sensing area adjoins optical and electrical components making packaging and sensor handling challenging. In this work, a local back-side release of the photonic sensor is employed, enabling a separation of the sensing area from the rest of the chip. This approach allows preserving the compatibility of photonic integrated circuits in the front-end of line and metal interconnects in the back-end of line. The sensor is based on a micro-ring resonator and is fabricated on wafer-level using a CMOS technology. We revealed a ring resonator sensitivity for homogeneous sensing of 106 nm/RIU.

(75) Direct Observation and Simultaneous Use of Linear and Quadratic Electro-Optical Effects
P. Steglich, Ch. Mai, C. Villringer, A. Mai
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 53(12), 125106 (2020)
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/ab6059, (HOPBIT)
We report on the direct observation and simultaneous use of the linear and quadratic electro-optical effect and propose a method by which higher-order susceptibilities of electro-optical materials can be determined. The evaluation is based on the separation of the second- and third-order susceptibilities and the experimental technique uses a slot waveguide ring resonator fabricated in integrated photonic circuit technology, which is embedded by a guest-host polymer system consisting of the azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1 in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix as an active electro-optical material. The contribution of both effects on the electro-optical response under the influence of static and time-varying electrical fields is investigated. We show that the quadratic electro-optical effect has a significant influence on the overall electro-optical response even with acentric molecular orientated molecules. Our findings have important implications for developing electro-optical devices based on polymer-filled slot waveguides and give rise to advanced photonic circuits.

(76) Electric Field-Induced Linear Electro-Optic Effect Observed in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Ring Resonator
P. Steglich, C. Villringer, B. Dietzel, Ch. Mai, S. Schrader, M. Casalboni, A. Mai
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 32(9), 526 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2019.2917665, (HOPBIT)
In this work, we report on the observation of the electric field-induced linear electro-optical effect in a silicon-based slot waveguide ring resonator covered by the nonlinear optical polymer Poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(Disperse Red 1 methacrylate)]. The device is fabricated in a photonic integrated circuit technology and intensity modulation is demonstrated to work in a direct-detection setup. As unique feature, the electric field-induced linear electro-optical effect allows to modulate the optical carrier wave with a time-varying electric field, while a static electric field can control its amplitude with no need for additional photonic components. Here, a linear tuning of the modulation-amplitude as function of the applied static electric field is demonstrated. This work paves a way toward novel integrated photonic device concepts.

(77) BioPIC - Integration of Biosensors based on Photonic Integrated Circuits by Local-Backside Etching
P. Steglich, Ch. Mai, S. Bondarenko, M. Paul, M.G. Weller, S. Schrader, A. Mai
Proc. ATTRACT Digital Conference 2020, 1 (2020)

(78) Full-Wave RF Modeling of a Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging Technology Based on Al-Al Wafer Bonding
M. Stocchi, M. Wietstruck, S. Schulze, Z. Cao, S. Tolunay Wipf, M. Kaynak
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SIRF 2020), 60 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF46766.2020.9040180

(79) Carbon Related Hillock Formation and its Impact on the Optoelectronic Properties of GaN/AlGaN Heterostructures Grown on Si(111)
H. Tetzner, P. Sana, W.M. Klesse, G. Capellini, M.A. Schubert, S.B. Thapa, P. Storck, T. Schroeder, M.H. Zoellner
Applied Physics Letters 116(25), 252101 (2020)
DOI: 10.1063/5.0005484, (GaN HEMT)
The integration of GaN on Si as large scale substrate still faces many hurdles. Besides the large difference in lattice constant and the high thermal mismatch existing between GaN and Si, spiral hillock growth phenomena are common problems in the development of thick GaN layers. In this work, hexagonal hillocks were observed on GaN/AlGaN high-electron-mobility transistor heterostructures grown on Si(111) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The presence of these morphological and structural defects is attributed to the presence of localized contamination at the AlN/Si interface. These carbon-based defects cause highly defective regions in the AlN seed layer and propagating through all the AlGaN buffer layers, inducing the formation of V-shaped pits at the lower AlGaN interfaces. In hillock regions of the wafers, Raman spectroscopy indicates disturbed two dimensional electron gas characteristics resulting from GaN/AlGaN interface roughness and a decreased amount of free carriers in the potential well. Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals Ga accumulation inside the V-pits and in nanopipes below, which is responsible for defective areas in GaN and following increased GaN growth rate resulting in hillock formation. Photoluminescence measurements confirm the presence of Ga-rich material reducing the inherent Gallium vacancy concentration. Here, the reduced amount of Ga-vacancies acting as shallow acceptor suppress the ultra-violet luminescence band from donor-acceptor pair transition.

(80) Electronic-to-Photonic Single-Event Transient Propagation in a Segmented Mach-Zehnder Modulator in a Si/SiGe Integrated Photonics Platform
G.N. Tzintzarov, A. Ildefonso, P.S. Goley, M. Frounchi, D. Nergui, S.G. Rao, J. Teng, J. Campbell, A. Khachatrian, S.P. Buchner, D. McMorrow, J.H. Warner, M. Kaynak, L. Zimmermann, J.D. Cressler
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 67(1), 260 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2019.2945860
The propagation of single-event transients from the electrical to the photonic domain in a segmented Mach-Zehnder modulator was investigated using pulsed-laser measurements and lumerical simulations. Although electrical transients can heavily degrade the input data to the modulator, almost all of the degradation can be suppressed once it is converted into the optical domain. The mitigation of transients is primarily accomplished by increasing V π of each segment, making electrical transients up to 6 V essentially negligible. A “folding” effect of the optical transient is also explained in relation to V π . Two radiation-hardening-by-design (RHBD) approaches are suggested to mitigate transient effects.

(81) Contact Resistance and Mobility in Back-Gate Graphene Transistors
F. Urban, G. Lupina, A. Grillo, N. Martucciello, A. Di Bartolomeo
Nano Express 1(1), 010001 (2020)
DOI: 10.1088/2632-959X/ab7055
The metal-graphene contact resistance is one of the major limiting factors toward the technological exploitation of graphene in electronic devices and sensors. High contact resistance can be detrimental to device performance and spoil the intrinsic great properties of graphene. In this paper, we fabricate back-gate graphene field-effect transistors with different geometries to study the contact and channel resistance as well as the carrier mobility as a function of gate voltage and temperature.We apply the transfer length method and the y-function method showing that the two approaches can complement each other to evaluate the contact resistance and prevent artifacts in the estimation of carrier mobility dependence on the gate-voltage. We find that the gate voltage modulates both the contact and the channel resistance in a similar way but does not change the carrier mobility. We also show that raising the temperature lowers the carrier mobility, has a negligible effect on the contact resistance, and can induce a transition from a semiconducting to a metallic behavior of the graphene sheet resistance, depending on the applied gate voltage. Finally, we show that eliminating the detrimental effects of the contact resistance on the transistor channel current almost doubles the carrier field-effect mobility and that a competitive contact resistance as low as 700 Ω·μm can be achieved by the zig-zag shaping of the Ni contact.

(82) Front-End Blocks of a W-Band Dicke Radiometer in SiGe BiCMOS Technology
B. Ustundag, E. Turkmen, A. Burak, B. Gungor, H. Kandis, B. Cetindogan, M. Yazici, M. Kaynak, Y. Gurbuz
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II 67(11), 2417 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2020.2968313
In this brief, design methodology and measurement results of W-Band Dicke radiometer blocks are presented. The Dicke radiometer blocks are implemented in IHPs 0.13- μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. All the implemented blocks, namely the SPDT switch, LNA and the power detector demonstrate the state of the art performance at W-Band. The SPDT has a measured IL of 1.8 dB and 20 dB isolation. The LNA achieves a peak gain of 22.3 dB and 4.2 dB NF and the PD has a NEP better than 0.5 pW/ √Hz. To achieve the minimum NETD, all the blocks are designed to be as wideband as possible. Using the measurement and simulation results, the achievable NETD of the radiometer is calculated to be better than 0.5 K.

(83) PI-MOCVD Technology of (La, Sr)(Mn, Co)O3: From Epitaxial to Nanostructured Films
M. Vagner, V. Plausinaitiene, R. Lukose, S. Kersulis, M. Talaikis, B. Knasiene, S. Stanionyte, V. Kubilius, K. Motiejuitis, Z. Saltyte, G. Niaura, E. Naujalis, N. Zurauskiene
Surface and Coatings Technology 385, 125287 (2020)
DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.125287
The novel La1-xSrx(Mn1-yCoy)zO3 (LSMCO) films were grown by Pulsed-Injection Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (PI-MOCVD) technique on different oxide substrates. The structural, transport and magnetic properties of the LSMCO films were investigated in terms of crystal structure, texture, electric and magnetoresistive properties of the films for room temperature applications in magnetic sensing. Additionally, to lattice matching-mismatching approach between the film and the substrate, chemical engineering in form of chemical doping was investigated. A certain Co content (from 0 up to 0.17) was introduced into non-stoichiometric La1-xSrx(Mn1-yCoy)zO3 films (z = 1.15) and revealed that Mn non-stoichiometry as well as Co content, influences the changes of transition from metal to insulator state temperature TMI. For epitaxial films (LSMCO grown on LaAlO3) the transition temperature (TMI) was very close to Curie temperature (Tc – transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state), whereas for nanostructured films (LSMCO on Sapphire and ceramic Al2O3), the transition temperatures were lower in comparison to Tc. It was found, that for all used substrates the transition temperature tends to decrease with the increase of Co-content in the films. The change of magnetoresistance properties with Co-content was observed and revealed highest magnetoresistance values at room temperature for the films with Co-content of ~0.06 up to 2.3 T magnetic field, leading to improved and controlled sensing properties at low magnetic fields.

(84) Cryogenic W-Band SiGe BiCMOS Low-Noise Amplifier
M. Varonen, N. Sheikhipoor, B. Gabritchidze, K. Cleary, H. Forstén, H. Rücker, M. Kaynak
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2020), 185 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/IMS30576.2020.9223922

(85) Nonlinear Optical Characterization of CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals as a Novel Material for the Integration into Electro-Optic Modulators
F. Vitale, F. De Matteis, M. Casalboni, P. Prosposito, P. Steglich, V. Ksianzou, C. Breiler, S. Schrader, B. Paci, A. Generosi
Materials Research Proceedings 16, 27 (2020)
DOI: 10.21741/9781644900710-4

(86) A Highly-Efficient 120 GHz and 240 GHz Signal Source in a SiGe-Technology
F. Vogelsang, D. Starke, J. Wittemeier, H. Rücker, N. Pohl
Proc. IEEE BiCMOS and Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Technology Symposium (BCICTS 2020), (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/BCICTS48439.2020.9392945, (Taranto)

(87) Nickel and Nickel-Platinum Silicide for BiCMOS Devices
D. Wolansky, J.-P. Blaschke, J. Drews, T. Grabolla, B. Heinemann, T. Lenke, H. Rücker, S. Schulze, M.A. Schubert, H.-P. Stoll, M.H. Zoellner, U. Richter, D. Deyo
Proc. 9th International SiGe, Ge, & Related Compounds: Materials, Processing, and Devices Symposium (ECS Meeting 2020), 1749 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/MA2020-02241749mtgabs, (Taranto)
The world’s fastest SiGe HBT was presented by Heinemann et al. at IEDM 2016, which was achieved among other measures by NiSi application. The BiCMOS integration of such HBTs requires a careful NiSi adjustment with respect to MOSFET leakage currents. The goal of this paper is to find out a NiSi or NiPtSi process, which results in low RS to increase fmax without degradation of MOSFET leakage currents. An fmax rise is demonstrated by a reduction of NiSi or NiPtSi RS to 4 Ω.  A further RS lowering to 1.6 Ω with a corresponding fmax increase was achieved by NiSi layers formed by two-step 300/450°C anneals, which generate elevated MOSFET leakage currents. They can be inhibited for NiSi formed by 200/450°C anneals at the expense of elevated RS. NiPtSi significantly suppresses silicide pipes to the MOSFET channel even for 300/450°C anneals and is a promising choice for upcoming BiCMOS technologies.
 

(88) Nickel and Nickel-Platinum Silicide for BiCMOS Devices
D. Wolansky, J.-P. Blaschke, J. Drews, T. Grabolla, B. Heinemann, T. Lenke, H. Rücker, S. Schulze, M.A. Schubert, H.-P. Stoll, M.H. Zoellner, U. Richter, D. Deyo
ECS Transactions 98(5), 351 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/09805.0351ecst, (Taranto)
The world’s fastest SiGe HBT was presented by Heinemann et al. at IEDM 2016, which was achieved among other measures by NiSi application. The BiCMOS integration of such HBTs requires a careful NiSi adjustment with respect to MOSFET leakage currents. The goal of this paper is to find out a NiSi or NiPtSi process, which results in low RS to increase fmax without degradation of MOSFET leakage currents. An fmax rise is demonstrated by a reduction of NiSi or NiPtSi RS to 4 Ω.  A further RS lowering to 1.6 Ω with a corresponding fmax increase was achieved by NiSi layers formed by two-step 300/450°C anneals, which generate elevated MOSFET leakage currents. They can be inhibited for NiSi formed by 200/450°C anneals at the expense of elevated RS. NiPtSi significantly suppresses silicide pipes to the MOSFET channel even for 300/450°C anneals and is a promising choice for upcoming BiCMOS technologies.

(89) A 1 mW Cryogenic LNA Exploiting Optimized SiGe HBTs to Achieve an Average Noise Temperature of 3.2K from 4–8GHz
W.-T. Wong, M. Hosseini, H. Rücker, J.C. Bardin
Proc. IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS 2020), 181 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/IMS30576.2020.9224049

(90) Large-Scale Fabrication of Submicrometer-Gate-Length MOSFETs with a Trilayer PtSe2 Channel Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
K. Xiong, M. Hilse, L. Li, A. Göritz, M. Lisker, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak, R. Engel-Herbert, A. Madjar, J.C.M. Hwang
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 67(3), 796 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2020.2966434
This article is the first report of MOSFETs fabricated on PtSe2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Both material synthesis and device fabrication are done below 450 °C—the thermal budget ofCMOS back-end-of-line processes. The MOSFETs are batch-fabricated by a CMOScompatible process on 200-mm-diameter Si substrates prepared by a state-of-the-art BiCMOS foundry. With three monolayers of PtSe2, an n-type MOSFET exhibits a current ON/OFF ratio of 43 at room temperature, which increases to 1600 at 80 K. These results are among the best of transistors based on synthesized PtSe2. Despite the thin PtSe2 layer, doping by contact bias lowers the contact resistance significantlyand boosts the current capacity and the ON/OFF ratio. Temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics imply a bandgap of approximately 0.2 eV, which confirms that the semiconductor-semimetal transition of PtSe2 is not as abrupt as originally predicted. Better MOSFET performancecan be expectedby growing even thinnerPtSe2 uniformlyand by thickeningthe PtSe2 in the contact regions.

(91) Temperature-Dependent RF Characteristics of Al2O3-Passivated WSe2 MOSFETs
K. Xiong, X. Zhang, L. Li, F. Zhang, B. Davis, A. Madjar, A. Göritz, M. Wietstruck, M. Kaynak, N.C. Strandwitz, M. Terrones, J.M. Redwing, J.C.M. Hwang
IEEE Electron Device Letters 41(7), 1134 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/LED.2020.2999906
Of all two-dimensional semiconductor crystals, WSe2 is particularly interesting due to its sizable bandgap, high carrier mobility, and compatibility with large-scale synthesis. By passivating WSe2 MOSFETs with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3, they are stable in room environment for more than five months. The passivation also increases their current capacity by two orders of magnitude. Their cutoff frequencies peak around room temperature, with the forward current cutoff frequency fT ∼ 0.6 GHz and the maximum frequency of oscillation fMAX ∼ 2 GHz. These results show WSe2 is a promising material for gigahertz thin-film transistors. However, if the surface passivation is not optimized, fixed charge in the passivation layer may lead to temporal and temperature instabilities.

(92) Threading Dislocation Reduction of Ge by Introducing SiGe / Ge Superlattice
Y. Yamamoto, C. Corley, M.A. Schubert, M.H. Zoellner, B. Tillack
Proc. ECS PRiME Meeting 2020, Symposium: SiGe, Ge, and Related Compounds: Materials, Processing and Devices, abstr. (2020)

(93) Ge/SiGe Multiple Quantum Well Fabrication by Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition
Y. Yamamoto, O. Skibitzki, M.A. Schubert, M. Scuderi, F. Reichmann, M.H. Zoellner, M. De Seta, G. Capellini, B. Tillack
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Pt. 1 59(SG), SGGK 10 (2020)
DOI: 10.7567/1347-4065/ab65d0, (FLASH)
In this paper we deposit structures comprising a stack of 10 periods made of 15-nm-thick Ge multiple quantum wells (MQWs) enclosed in a 15-nm-thick Si0.2Ge0.8 barrier on SiGe virtual substrates (VSs) featuring different Ge content in the 85%–100% range to investigate the influence of heteroepitaxial strain on Si0.2Ge0.8 and Ge growth. With increasing Ge concentration of the VS, the growth rate of Si0.2Ge0.8 in the MQWs increases. Si incorporation into the Si0.2Ge0.8 layer also becomes slightly higher. However, almost no influence of the growth rate is observed for Ge growth in the MQWs. We argue that increased tensile strain promotes the Si reaction at the surface. In the case of Si0.2Ge0.8 growth on Ge, we observe a smeared interface due to Ge segregation during the growth. Furthermore, we observe that the interface width increases with increasing Ge concentration of the VS. We attribute this observation to the increased segregation of Ge driven by increased strain energy accumulated in the Si0.2Ge0.8 layers. We also observe that the MQW layer "filters out" threading dislocations formed in the VS.

(94) Threading Dislocation Reduction of Ge by Introducing a SiGe/Ge Superlattice
Y. Yamamoto, C. Corley, M.A. Schubert, M.H. Zoellner, B. Tillack
ECS Transactions 98(5), 185 (2020)
DOI: 10.1149/09805.0185ecst
The influence of introducing a SiGe / Ge superlattice (SL) between Ge layers and Si substrate for the sake of the reduction of the threading dislocation density (TDD) without additional annealing is investigated. In the case of 2.8 μm thick Ge directly grown on Si, the TDD at the surface is 7.6×10-8 cm-2. A slight TDD reduction is observed by introducing a Si0.2Ge0.8 / Ge SL between the Si substrate and the Ge layer. By inserting 5, 10 and 20 cycles of Si0.2Ge0.8 / Ge, the TDD is reduced to 7.1×10-8, 5.9×10,-8 and 5.3×10-8 cm-2, respectively. The lateral lattice parameters of these SLs are ~5.656Å, which is a smaller value compared to that of bulk Ge, indicating plastic relaxation by misfit dislocation (MD) formation. Further TDD reduction is realized with increasing Si concentration in the SiGe / Ge SL without changing the cycle of the SL. However, surface roughening due to pit formation occurs if the Si concentration in the SL is higher than 50% because of increased strain at the interfaces between SiGe and Ge. With increasing SiGe and Ge thickness ratio in the SL layer and maintaining periodicity and cycles, the TDD is reduced to 2.8×10-8 cm-2 without degrading the surface roughness. This improvement is related to a relaxation of the SiGe/Ge SL by plastic deformation.

(95) Analogue Pattern Recognition with Stochastic Switching Binary CMOS-Integrated Memristive Devices
F. Zahari, E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, H. Kohlstedt, Ch. Wenger, M. Ziegler
Scientific Reports 10, 14450 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-71334-x, (NeuroMem)
Biological neural networks outperform todays computer technology in terms of power consumption and computing speed when associative tasks, like pattern recognition, are to be solved. The analogue and massive parallel in-memory computing in biology differs strongly with conventional transistor electronics using the von Neumann architecture. Therefore, novel bio-inspired computing architectures are recently highly investigated in the area of neuromorphic computing. Here, memristive devices, which serve as non-volatile resistive memory, are used to emulate the plastic behaviour of biological synapses. In particular, CMOS integrated resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices are promising candidates to extend conventional CMOS technology in neuromorphic systems. However, dealing with the inherent stochasticity of the resistive switching effect can be  challenging for network performance. In this work, the probabilistic switching is exploited to emulate stochastic plasticity with fully CMOS integrated binary RRAM devices. Two different RRAM technologies with different device variabilities are investigated in detail and their use in a stochastic artificial neural network (StochANN) to solve the MINST pattern recognition task is examined. A mixed-signal implementation with hardware synapses and software neurons as well as numerical simulations show the proposed concept of stochastic computing is able to handle analogue data with binary memory cells.

(96) Reliability of Logic-in-Memory Circuits in Resistive Memory Arrays
T. Zanotti, C. Zambelli, F.M. Puglisi, V. Milo, E. Perez, M.K. Mahadevaiah, O.G. Ossorio, Ch. Wenger, P. Pavan, P. Olivo, D. Ielmini
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 67(11), 4611 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/TED.2020.3025271, (NeuroMem)
Logic-in-memory (LiM) circuits based on resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices and the material implication logic are promising candidates for the development of low-power computing devices that could fulfill the growing demand of distributed computing systems. However, these circuits are affected by many reliability challenges that arise from device nonidealities (e.g., variability) and the characteristics of the employed circuit architecture. Thus, an accurate investigation of the variability at the array level is needed to evaluate the reliability and performance of such circuit architectures. In this work, we explore the reliability and performance of smart IMPLY (SIMPLY) (i.e., a recently proposed LiM architecture with improved reliability and performance) on two 4-kb RRAM arrays based on different resistive switching oxides integrated in the back end of line (BEOL) of the 0.25- μm BiCMOS process. We analyze the tradeoff between reliability and energy consumption of SIMPLY architecture by exploiting the results of an extensive array-level variability characterization of the two technologies. Finally, we study the worst case performance of a full adder implemented with the SIMPLY architecture and benchmark it on the analogous CMOS implementation.

(97) Neuromorphic On-Chip Recognition of Saliva Samples of COPD and Healthy Controls using Memristive Devices
P.S. Zarrin, F. Zahari, M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, H. Kohlstedt, Ch. Wenger
Scientific Reports 10, 19742 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76823-7, (RRAM (Resistive RAM))
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a life-threatening lung disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Implementation of Machine Learning (ML) techniques is crucial for the effective management of COPD in home-care environments. However, shortcomings of cloud-based ML tools in terms of data safety and energy efficiency limit their integration with low-power medical devices. To address this, energy efficient neuromorphic platforms can be used for the hardware-based implementation of ML methods. Therefore, a memristive neuromorphic platform is presented in this paper for the on-chip recognition of saliva samples of COPD patients and healthy controls. The results of its performance evaluations showed that the digital neuromorphic chip is capable of recognizing unseen COPD samples with accuracy and sensitivity values of 89% and 86%, respectively. Integration of this technology into personalized healthcare devices will enable the better management of chronic diseases such as COPD.

(98) Neuromorphic On-Chip Recognition of Saliva Samples of COPD and Healthy Controls using Memristive Devices
P.S. Zarrin, F. Zahari, M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, H. Kohlstedt, Ch. Wenger
Scientific Reports 10, 19742 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76823-7, (NeuroMem)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a life-threatening lung disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Implementation of Machine Learning (ML) techniques is crucial for the effective management of COPD in home-care environments. However, shortcomings of cloud-based ML tools in terms of data safety and energy efficiency limit their integration with low-power medical devices. To address this, energy efficient neuromorphic platforms can be used for the hardware-based implementation of ML methods. Therefore, a memristive neuromorphic platform is presented in this paper for the on-chip recognition of saliva samples of COPD patients and healthy controls. The results of its performance evaluations showed that the digital neuromorphic chip is capable of recognizing unseen COPD samples with accuracy and sensitivity values of 89% and 86%, respectively. Integration of this technology into personalized healthcare devices will enable the better management of chronic diseases such as COPD.

(99) Neuromorphic On-Chip Recognition of Saliva Samples of COPD and Healthy Controls using Memristive Devices
P.S. Zarrin, F. Zahari, M.K. Mahadevaiah, E. Perez, H. Kohlstedt, Ch. Wenger
Scientific Reports 10, 19742 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76823-7, (EXASENS)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a life-threatening lung disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Implementation of Machine Learning (ML) techniques is crucial for the effective management of COPD in home-care environments. However, shortcomings of cloud-based ML tools in terms of data safety and energy efficiency limit their integration with low-power medical devices. To address this, energy efficient neuromorphic platforms can be used for the hardware-based implementation of ML methods. Therefore, a memristive neuromorphic platform is presented in this paper for the on-chip recognition of saliva samples of COPD patients and healthy controls. The results of its performance evaluations showed that the digital neuromorphic chip is capable of recognizing unseen COPD samples with accuracy and sensitivity values of 89% and 86%, respectively. Integration of this technology into personalized healthcare devices will enable the better management of chronic diseases such as COPD.

(100) A Wide Locking-Range, Low Phase-Noise and High Output Power D-Band SiGe PLL
S. Zeinolabedinzadeh, I. Song, M. Kaynak, J.D. Cressler
Proc. 20th IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF 2020), 35 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/SIRF46766.2020.9040189

(101) A Co-Integrated Silicon-Based Electronic-Photonic Wideband, High-Power Signal Source
S. Zeinolabedinzadeh, P. Goley, M. Frounchi, S. Rao, C.G. Bottenfield, S.E. Ralph, M. Kaynak, L. Zimmermann, St. Lischke, Ch. Mai, J.D. Cressler
Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC 2020), M2I.2 (2020)
DOI: 10.1364/OFC.2020.M2I.2, (Photonics)

(102) 3.2-mW Ultra-Low-Power 173–207-GHz Amplifier with 130-nm SiGe HBTs Operating in Saturation
Y. Zhang, W. Liang, X. Jin, M. Krattenmacher, S. Falk, P. Sakalas, B. Heinemann, M. Schröter
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 55(6), 1471 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2019.2959510, (Taranto)
This article presents an ultra-low-power silicon germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBT) amplifier operating at 200 GHz. The amplifier consists of three cascaded gain-cell stages and was implemented in an experimental 130-nm SiGe HBT technology with peak fT /fmax of 460/600 GHz. In order to achieve the demonstrated extremely low dc power dissipation, the circuit was designed with transistors operating at forward-biased base-collector junction voltage (VBC). With 1.3-V supply voltage (VBC ≈ 0.2 V), this amplifier exhibits a peak gain of 23.5 dB at 180 and 205 GHz with 34-GHz 3-dB bandwidth (BW) from 173 to 207 GHz, consuming 3.2-mW static dc power. Even with a supply voltage of 0.7 V (VBC ≈ 0.5 V), this amplifier still operates with a peak gain of 18.3 dB at 175 GHz, dissipating an extremely low dc power of 1.73 mW. Compared with the previously reported low-power amplifiers operating around 200 GHz, this article achieves the highest linear gain relative to the dc power consumption with an improvement factor of ten, as well as highly competitive performances in terms of noise figure and 3-dB BW.

(103) Cap Fabrication and Transfer Bonding Technology for Hermetic and Quasi Hermetic Wafer Level MEMS Packaging
K. Zoschke, P. Mackowiak, K. Kröhnert, H. Oppermann, N. Jürgensen, M. Wietstruck, A. Göritz, S. Tolunay Wipf, M. Kaynak, K.-D. Lang
Proc. 70th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC 2020), 432 (2020)
DOI: 10.1109/ECTC32862.2020.00076

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